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Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Nicole Reinders and Pamela J. Bryden

Given the potential for dance to serve as a way to engage in physical activity, this review was undertaken to examine the use and effectiveness of physical activity interventions using dance among children and adolescents.Five databases were examined for dance-related physical activity interventions published between 2009–2016 fitting the inclusion criteria. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were then evaluated for studyquality against the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool (Thomas, Ciliska, Dobbins, & Micucci. 2004) and key study information was extracted. Thirteen papers detailing 11 interventions wereobtained. Intervention study quality was rated as weak (based on scoring) for all studies. Multiple forms of dance were used, including exergaming approaches. Four interventions yielded increases in physical activity(reported in six articles), four interventions were inconclusive, and three interventions produced nonstatistically significant findings. Further research is required in this area to determine the effects of dance interventionson physical activity among youth.

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Peter M. Tiidus, Joel Cort, Sarah J. Woodruff and Pamela Bryden

Objectives:

To evaluate ultrasound’s effectiveness after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage.

Participants:

22 subjects.

Intervention:

Random assignment to ultrasound (UT) or placebo (PT). Ultrasound was applied immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h after 50 maximum eccentric contractions of the biceps.

Outcome Measures:

Concentric and eccentric peak torques, resting elbow angle, and subjective muscle soreness were measured before and 24, 48, 72, and 96 h afterward.

Results:

No significant differences between UT and PT for biceps concentric or eccentric peak torque were noted. Both groups exhibited significant (P < .01) depression in eccentric and concentric peak torques with a slow return toward preexercise values over 96 h. Resting elbow angles for both groups were significantly lower than preexercise values up to 96 h (P < .01). Muscle soreness increased significantly (P < .05) at 24 and 48 h and returned to preexercise levels by 96 h.

Conclusions:

Daily ultrasound did not influence recovery after eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage.

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Sara M. Scharoun, Pamela J. Bryden, Michael E. Cinelli, David A. Gonzalez and Eric A. Roy

This study investigated whether 5- to 11-year-old children perceive affordances in the same way as adults (M age = 22.93, SD = 2.16) when presented with a task and four tools (nail in a block of wood and a hammer, rock, wrench, and comb; bucket of sand and a shovel, wooden block, rake, and tweezers; and a screw in a block of wood and a screwdriver, knife, dime, and crayon). Participants were asked to select the best tool and act on an object until all four assigned tools had been selected. No explicit instructions were provided because we were interested in how task perception would influence tool selection and action. Results support the notion that the capacity to perceive affordances increases with age. Furthermore, differences in the way in which 5-year-olds acted on the screw in a block of wood demonstrated that the ability to detect some affordances takes longer to refine. Findings help to further the understanding of the development of perception-action coupling.

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy and Pamela J. Bryden

Young adults plan actions in advance to minimize the cost of movement. This is exemplified by the end-state comfort (ESC) effect. A pattern of improvement in ESC in children is linked to the development of cognitive control processes, and decline in older adults is attributed to cognitive decline. This study used a cross-sectional design to examine how movement context (pantomime, demonstration with image/glass as a guide, actual grasping) influences between-hand differences in ESC planning. Children (5- to 12-year-olds), young adults, and two groups of older adults (aged 60–70, and aged 71 and older) were assessed. Findings provide evidence for adult-like patterns of ESC in 8-year-olds. Results are attributed to improvements in proprioceptive acuity and proficiency in generating and implementing internal representations of action. For older adults early in the aging process, sensitivity to ESC did not differ from young adults. However, with increasing age, differences reflect challenges in motor planning with increases in cognitive demand, similar to previous work. Findings have implications for understanding lifespan motor behavior.