Background: There is a need to understand physical activity types associated with health-related work limitations (also known as presenteeism). This study tests whether additive effects between physical activity types are associated with health-related work limitations among employees from a public university system. Methods: A cross-sectional study using health assessment data (n = 10,791) was used to examine aims. Analysis of covariance models tested differences in work limitations between physical activity groups based on combinations of stretching behavior, aerobic, and muscle-strengthening physical activities. Planned contrasts compared differences between selected groups. Results: There were significant group differences (P < .001) in reported work limitations after controlling for demographic, season, and health-related variables. Employees who reported participating in aerobic physical activity had significantly lower work limitation levels compared with inactive employees (P = .027). Employees who reported participating in both aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities had the lowest work limitation levels compared with all groups and significantly lower work limitation levels compared with employees who participated in aerobic physical activity only (P = .026). Conclusions: Results provide evidence of an additive effect where participating in a combination of aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities may be most beneficial when targeting health-related work limitations.
Timothy J. Walker, Jessica M. Tullar, Pamela M. Diamond, Harold W. Kohl III and Benjamin C. Amick III
Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher, Steven H. Kelder, Pamela M. Diamond, R. Sue Day and Albert C. Hergenroeder
The purpose of this study was to identify pathways used by psychosocial factors to influence physical activity and bone health in middle-school girls.
Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study collected in 2001 to 2003 were used. IMPACT was a 1 1/2 years nutrition and physical activity intervention study designed to improve bone density in 717 middle-school girls in Texas. Structural Equations Modeling was used to examine the interrelationships and identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial and environmental factors to influence physical activity and bone health.
Results show that physical activity self-efficacy and social support (friend, family engagement, and encouragement in physical activity) had a significant direct and indirect influence on physical activity with participation in sports teams as the mediator. Participation in sports teams had a direct effect on both physical activity (β= 0.20, P < .05) and bone health and (β=0.13, P < .05).
The current study identified several direct and indirect pathways that psychosocial factors use to influence physical activity and bone health among adolescent girls. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions for promoting bone health in this population.