Resistance training is known to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species. Although this can likely upregulate the natural, endogenous antioxidant defense systems, high amounts of reactive oxygen species can cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue, and impair recovery. To prevent these, antioxidant supplements are commonly consumed along with exercise. Recently, it has been shown that these reactive oxygen species are important for the cellular adaptation process, acting as redox signaling molecules. However, most of the research regarding antioxidant status and antioxidant supplementation with exercise has focused on endurance training. In this review, the authors discuss the evidence for resistance training modulating the antioxidant status. They also highlight the effects of combining antioxidant supplementation with resistance training on training-induced skeletal muscle adaptations.
Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis
Nathan W. Saunders, Panagiotis Koutakis, Anne D. Kloos, Deborah A. Kegelmeyer, Jessica D. Dicke and Steven T. Devor
Clinicians are in need of valid and objective measures of postural sway. Accelerometers have been shown to be suitable alternatives to expensive and stationary force plates. We evaluated the test-retest reliability and balance task discrimination capability of a new wireless triaxial accelerometer (YEI 3-Space Sensor). Four testing conditions (eyes open or closed, while on a firm or compliant surface) were used to progressively challenge the static balance of 20 healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 12) older adults (mean age 81 ± 4.3 y). Subjects completed 2 blocks of three 30-second trials per condition. The accelerometer was positioned on the lower back to acquire mediolateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) accelerations. Intraclass correlation coefficients were all good to excellent, with values ranging from .736 to .972 for trial-to-trial and from .760 to .954 for block-to-block. A significant stepwise increase in center of mass acceleration root mean square values was found across the 4 balance conditions (F[1.49, 28.26] = 39.54, P < .001). The new accelerometer exhibited good to excellent trial-to-trial and block-to-block reliability and was sensitive to differences in visual and surface conditions and acceleration axes.