A 50-item questionnaire measuring athletes’ attitudes toward seeking a sport psychology consultant (ATSSPCQ) was initially developed and then administered to 48 African American and 177 Caucasian student-athletes at a NCAA Division I university. Principal components factor analyses were conducted to extract initial factors and then varimax orthogonal rotation was performed. The analyses produced three dimensions of athlete attitude that accounted for 35% of the variance: stigma tolerance, confidence in a SPC/recognition of need, and interpersonal openness/willingness to try a SPC. A MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analyses were then performed to identify the factors that maximized differences between gender and race. Significant differences in stigma tolerance were found for both gender and race. SPCs were stigmatized more by male athletes than by female athletes and more by African American athletes than by Caucasian athletes. No other significant effects were obtained.
Scott B. Martin, Craig A. Wrisberg, Patricia A. Beitel and John Lounsbury
Dennie R. Kelley, Patricia A. Beitel, Joy T. DeSensi and Mary Dale Blanton
The purpose of this paper is to present undergraduate and graduate sport management curricular models which provide a perspective that higher education sport management professionals can use to solve curricular problems described in the literature and to implement the NASPE/NASSM guidelines. The five sport management concentrations, which have similar objectives and services but occur in different settings or serve different clientele, include (a) Sport for Leisure/Recreation, (b) Sport and Athletics, (c) Sport Merchandising, (d) Hostelries/Travel, and (e) Recreation Agencies. The models (a) differentiate purposes, content, and entry-level positions for each degree level; (b) provide evidence for which concentrations need to be part of each curriculum; (c) define a professional core; (d) describe the concentration specialization requirements; (e) differentiate the culminating experiences for each degree; and (f) provide the distinctive characteristics of undergraduate and graduate programs.
Joy T. DeSensi, Dennie R. Kelley, Mary Dale Blanton and Patricia A. Beitel
This study specifically determined (a) employer expectations of sport managers, (b) employer evaluation of educational sport management programs and curricula, (c) college/university faculty/student evaluation of components of existing sport management programs, and (d) the interrelationships among these groups. The results of this study identified the commonalities within and between business/agency groups and college/university faculty and students. Results of the business/agency needs assessment indicated major differences across settings for academic/experiential requirements, employment needs, workload distributions, and job evaluation criteria. Evaluation of the commonalities/ differences provide indication for curricular planning. Also, differences were apparent between the curricular evaluations of the college/university faculty and business/agency personnel, suggesting the need to evaluate curricular content and determine where changes should/should not be made. There is support for the theoretical conjecture that one concentration will not meet the needs of personnel for all business/agency settings.