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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

An arm ergometer analog of the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) has been proposed for subjects with impairments of mobility (Longmuir & Shephard, 1995). Because of muscle weakness or spasm, only 63% of the adults concerned could maintain the required cadence in the original test version. Thus, in the present study it was hypothesized that a reduced crank loading would yield a higher success rate. In a sample of 35 adults with mobility impairment, 82% were able to complete at least one stage of the modified test. Difficulty was encountered mainly by persons with cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis. The revised protocol had a high (r = .97) 1-week test/retest reliability, with no test/retest bias except that subjects with brain lesions scored somewhat higher at their second assessment. A scaled prediction of peak oxygen intake using the standard CAFT equation agreed closely with direct arm ergometer determinations of it. The modified test showed a mean discrepancy ±SD of 0.1 ± 4.8 ml/[kg · min]. Further validation is needed, but the current analog of the standard CAFT appears to be useful for many with mobility impairments.

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

The Arm CAFT is a simple submaximal arm ergometer test for subjects with mobility disabilities, designed to match the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) in both administration and interpretation. It is here evaluated relative to direct arm ergometer measurements of peak oxygen intake in 41 men and women with mobility disabilities, aged 20-60, who were attending an “integrated” sports facility. Peak oxygen intake was predicted using the original CAFT equation, but the oxygen cost of arm ergometer test stages was substituted and predictions were scaled downward by 70/100 to allow for the lower peak aerobic power of the upper limbs. In 16 subjects who maintained cranking cadence, predictions were reliable over 1 week, with a small increase of score at the second test. Although the Arm CAFT protocol is reliable and free of bias, it has only a limited validity, and only a minority of the stronger individuals with mobility disabilities can sustain the required cranking rhythm.

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Oded Bar-Or

To date, very little published information has been available on the physical activity participation of disabled youth. A questionnaire, which was modified from the Canada Fitness Survey, was distributed by mail to physically disabled, sensory impaired, and chronically ill children and adolescents in Ontario, Canada. Nine hundred eighty-seven responses were collected from subjects 6 to 20 years of age, with a response rate of 58%. Twenty-nine percent of physically challenged youth were found to be sedentary, and 39% were active. Activity levels were significantly related to age (p < .01), with a marked decline in the second decade of life. Activity levels were not significantly influenced by gender, but the data suggest that girls have lower activity levels and a faster and earlier decline in activity than boys. Overall, the data collected provide baseline information on the role of physical activity in the lives of Ontario youth with physical disabilities, sensory impairments, and chronic illnesses.

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Patricia E. Longmuir and Oded Bar-Or

This study examined gender, disability type, age, and specific diagnostic category in relation to habitual physical activity levels (HPA), perceived fitness (PF), and perceived participation limitations (PPL) of youths, ages 6 to 20 years, in Ontario, Canada. Data collected through a mailed survey (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 1994) were reanalyzed using ANOVA and chi square statistics to provide new information. The 458 girls and 499 boys were classified by disability type: physical, chronic medical, visual, and hearing. Significant differences (p < .01) were between (a) HPA and disability type, specific diagnostic category, and age; (b) PF and disability type; and (c) PPL and disability type. Gender did not influence the results. Youths with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and visual impairment had the most sedentary lifestyles.

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Claire E. Francis, Patricia E. Longmuir, Charles Boyer, Lars Bo Andersen, Joel D. Barnes, Elena Boiarskaia, John Cairney, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Guy Faulkner, Beth P. Hands, John A. Hay, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Han C. G. Kemper, Duane Knudson, Meghann Lloyd, Thomas L. McKenzie, Tim S. Olds, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Roy J. Shephard, Weimo Zhu and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children’s physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required.

Methods:

Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores and score interpretation.

Results:

Delphi participant consensus was achieved for 64% (47/73) of statement topics, including a revised conceptual model, specific assessment protocols, the importance of longitudinal tracking, and the relative importance of individual protocols and composite scores. Divergent opinions remained regarding the inclusion of sleep time, assessment/scoring of the obstacle course assessment of motor skill, and the need for an overall physical literacy classification.

Conclusions:

The revised CAPL model (overlapping domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge, encompassed by daily behavior) is appropriate for monitoring the physical literacy of children aged 8 to 12 years. Objectively measured domains (daily behavior, physical competence) have higher relative importance. The interpretation of CAPL results should be reevaluated as more data become available.