This prospective, naturalistic study examined the relationship between different exercise dimensions (i.e., frequency, intensity, duration, and omissions of planned exercise) and psychological well-being among community adults participating in self-selected exercise. For at least 2 months, participants kept daily exercise diaries and provided weekly ratings for depressed mood, anxiety, sleep quality, concentration, alertness, confidence, weight satisfaction, physical fitness, appetite, satisfaction with physical shape and appearance, and stress experienced. Linear mixed model analyses revealed positive associations between exercise frequency, intensity, and duration across a broad range of psychological and mood-related outcomes. In contrast, omissions of planned exercise were associated with a global and detrimental effect on psychological health. A main effect of age and a moderating effect of gender was observed in many of the models. This work contributes to literature on exercise dimensions and psychological constructs and informs future research that is needed to develop physical activity recommendations for improved mental health.
Maggie Evans, Kelly J. Rohan, Alan Howard, Sheau-Yan Ho, Patricia M. Dubbert, and Barbara A. Stetson
Miriam C. Morey, Patricia M. Dubbert, Martha E. Doyle, Helga MacAller, Gail M. Crowley, Maggie Kuchibhatla, Margaret Schenkman, and Ronnie D. Horner
Getting older adults to initiate and maintain long-term exercise is an important public health mandate. This study is an analysis of a clinical trial of 112 sedentary adults, age 65–90 years, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 exercise interventions. We examined predictors and patterns of adherence of the 6-month home-based component of the trial. Telephone follow-up and diaries were used to assess adherence. Adherence to weekend exercise during the supervised phase of the program was the strongest predictor of subsequent home-based adherence. Adherence appeared stable throughout the intervention, indicating that adherence or nonadherence was established from the outset. The authors conclude that nonadherence can be identified early in the behavioral-change process. Future studies should focus on developing strategies for adults with chronic illnesses, depressive symptoms, and functional limitations who are nonadherent early on as they initiate and attempt to maintain exercise.
Todd A. Smitherman, Patricia M. Dubbert, Karen B. Grothe, Jung Hye Sung, Darla E. Kendzor, Jared P. Reis, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert L. Newton Jr., Karen T. Lesniak, and Herman A. Taylor Jr.
Physical inactivity has been consistently linked to cardiovascular disease, yet few instruments have been validated for assessment of physical activity in African Americans, a group particularly vulnerable to heart disease. The current study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the activity survey used in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) among African Americans, the JHS Physical Activity Cohort survey (JPAC).
Test-retest reliability over 2 weeks was assessed using a convenience sample of 40 African Americans. Convergent validity with accelerometer and pedometer data were assessed in 2 samples from the JHS (N = 404 and 294, respectively).
Test-retest reliability was excellent, with intraclass correlations = .99 for the JPAC total and index scores. Higher JPAC total scores were significantly associated with higher raw accelerometer and pedometer counts. Spearman correlations between JPAC total scores and accelerometer (rho = .24) and pedometer counts (rho = .32) were consistent with these results. Most subscales were significantly correlated with the objective measures. The JPAC total score was most strongly associated with objectively-measured activity.
This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the JPAC as a tool for assessing physical activity among African Americans across a variety of domains.