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Paul J. Felton, Maurice R. Yeadon and Mark A. King

Planar simulation models which assume coincident joint centers at the hip and shoulder are often used to investigate subject-specific maximal performances rather than 3-dimensional models due to the viability of determining subject-specific parameters. To investigate the effect of coincident joint centers on model accuracy, 3 variants of a 16-segment planar subject-specific angle-driven model were evaluated using an elite cricket fast bowling performance: (a) planar representation assuming coincident joint centers, (b) planar representation with noncoincident hip joint centers, and (c) planar representation with noncoincident hip and shoulder joint centers. Model (c) with noncoincident hip and shoulder joint centers best matched the recorded performance with better estimates of the ground reaction force (mean RMS differences: (a) 18%, (b) 12%, and (c) 11%) and ball release velocity (mean RMS differences: (a) 3.8%, (b) 3.2%, and (c) 1.7%) due to a better representation of the mass center location and link system endpoint velocity. Investigations into the subject-specific performance of maximal effort movements, where nonsagittal plane rotations of the pelvis and torso could affect model accuracy, should consider the use of noncoincident hip and shoulder joint centers within a planar model rather than using a simple planar model or a full 3-dimensional model.