Paul Jansma and Paul Surburg
This paper focuses on competency guidelines related to adapted physical education Ph.D. professional preparation in the United States with an emphasis on educational models and different orientations applicable to doctoral professional preparation. Key literature and related information are provided on teacher reform, standards, and competencies, with an emphasis on adapted physical education. The method of development, refinement, validation, and endorsement of the doctoral competencies over the course of this 6-year project precedes the listing of the final 79 competencies across two generic areas (adapted physical educator, researcher) and four other competency areas (administrator, movement scientist, advocate, pedagogue). The paper concludes with a discussion of quality control, doctoral program commonality and diversity, future competency guideline refinement efforts, and postgraduation professional development.
Jim Decker and Paul Jansma
For over 15 years it has been public policy to educate students with disabilities, to the maximum extent possible, in the least restrictive environment (LRE) alongside their peers without disabilities. However, scarce empirical data exist documenting nationwide efforts to comply with the LRE mandate. The purpose of this study was to determine what types of LRE continua are in use in physical education throughout the United States. Subjects were physical education personnel in 452 schools throughout the United States. Data were collected regarding the usage of physical education LRE placement continua across enrollment level, grade range, metro status, and geographic region. Results indicate that while numerous (N = 26) physical education LRE continua were used during the 1988-89 school year, in most cases students with disabilities received physical education in a regular class setting with little or no access to adapted physical education. These results indicate that the utility of traditional physical education LRE placement continua may be suspect.
Clarice S. Combs and Paul Jansma
This study examined the effects of physical fitness training and reinforcement on adults who were institutionalized and dually diagnosed as mentally retarded/emotionally disturbed. Subjects (N=5) were provided daily 1-hour fitness training sessions for 6 weeks. Fitness data were collected before initial fitness training, after 3 weeks of training, after 1 week of no fitness training, after 3 more weeks of training, and 2 weeks after training was terminated. Fitness data collected included total number of bent-knee sit-ups completed in 1 minute, total distance in feet completed in 12 minutes of running, and flexibility in centimeters measured on a sit-and-reach box. An equivalent time-series research design (A-B-A-B) with follow-up was used to test the relationship of fitness training and reinforcement to subsequent fitness component behaviors. The results for both individual and group data show improvement in all three fitness parameters after 3 weeks of training and continued improvement for the final 3 weeks of training. The results of a two-way ANOVA yielded significant differences of training and reinforcement for all three fitness parameters across research phases and follow-up.
Samuel R. Hodge and Paul Jansma
Attitude change of physical education majors was studied in relation to number of weeks in an introductory adapted physical education (APE) course and type of practicum location (on- or off-campus). Data were collected using the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (PEATID-III) (Rizzo, 1993b) and a practicum information questionnaire (PIQ). Participants completing the PEATID-III during Weeks 1, 10, and 15 of their course were 292 males and 182 females in 22 institutions of higher education (IHEs) representing 17 states. Participants completing the PIQ were 17 faculty members. A nonequivalent comparison group, pretest-posttest experimental design was used with factorial ANOVA, post-hoc measures, ANCOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings indicated that off- and on-campus practicum both promoted positive attitude change between Weeks 1 and 10 and Weeks 1 and 15. On-campus practicum experiences improved attitudes significantly more than off-campus ones.
David L. Porretta, Paul R. Surburg and Paul Jansma
Graduates from four adapted physical education doctoral programs (1980-1999) within the United States were surveyed to determine their perceptions on the extent to which they attained published competencies in the areas of research and adapted physical education. A survey was mailed to 109 doctoral program graduates. A total of 99 surveys (91%) were usable for data analysis. Competency data were analyzed separately across two 10-year time periods (1980-1989; 1990-1999). Respondents’ perceptions improved significantly in cumulative research competency scores from the first to the second time period. Responses for adapted physical education competencies were similar across both time periods. Follow-up analyses on responses for each of the separate 18 research and 20 adapted physical education competency statements resulted in significant improvement from 1980-1989 to 1990-1999 for eight research competencies and one adapted physical education competency. Results have implications for the future of adapted physical education doctoral training in the United States and beyond.
Paul Jansma, Jim Decker, Walter Ersing, Jeffrey McCubbin and Sue Combs
This article addresses the issue of fitness assessment for use with individuals who are severely mentally retarded. An overview of The Ohio State University’s Project Transition is accompanied by a detailed review of its assessment system with a particular emphasis upon scoring. Some notable features of the system are contrasted with those of the three related published assessment systems in physical education. The most significant characteristic of the Project Transition assessment system is its score sheet, which yields specific information related to percentage of task completion, level of prompting required for subtasks, whole skill performance, task-analyzed step descriptions, and reinforcement strategy. Assessment systems for individuals who are severely handicapped rarely provide all of these measures. An assessment system of this type is claimed to be useful for both the practitioner and the researcher.