Vision therapy is a field of optometry dedicated to the belief that eyesight and certain visual functions can be improved. Currently, due to lack of conclusive research, there is dissention regarding the validity of this intervention technique. This paper examines the rationale that supports and/or refutes vision therapy and ways in which this intervention has been used, and makes recommendations for future research, particularly directed toward special populations. Studies have shown there are many problems related to visual efficiency and visual processing for special populations. Vision therapy is discussed as a potential resource for designing developmental physical education programs for special populations.