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  • Author: Paul W. Macdermid x
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Paul W. Macdermid and Stephen R. Stannard

This study compared a training diet recommended for endurance athletes (H-CHO) with an isoenergetic high protein (whey supplemented), moderate carbohydrate (H-Pro) diet on endurance cycling performance. Over two separate 7-d periods subjects (n = 7) ingested either H-CHO (7.9 ± 1.9 g · kg−1 · d−1 carbohydrate; 1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg−1 · d−1 fat; 1.3 ± 0.4 g · kg−1 · d−1 protein) or H-Pro (4.9 ± 1.8 g · kg−1 · d−1; 1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg−1 · d−1; 3.3 ± 0.4 g · kg−1 · d−1) diet in a randomized, balanced order. On day 8 subjects cycled (self-paced) for a body weight dependent (60 kJ/bm) amount of work. No differences occurred between energy intake (P = 0.422) or fat intake (P = 0.390) during the two dietary conditions. Performance was significantly (P = 0.010) impaired following H-Pro (153 ± 36) compared with H-CHO (127 ± 34 min). No differences between treatments were observed for physiological measures taken during the performance trials. These results indicate an ergolytic effect of a 7-d high protein diet on self-paced endurance cycling performance.

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Paul W. Macdermid, Stephen Stannard, Dean Rankin and David Shillington


To determine beneficial effects of short-term galactose (GAL) supplementation over a 50:50 glucose–maltodextrin (GLUC) equivalent on self-paced endurance cycling performance.


On 2 separate occasions, subjects performed a 100-km self-paced time trial (randomized and balanced order). This was interspersed with four 1-km and four 4-km maximal efforts reflecting the physical requirements of racing. Before each trial 38 ± 3 g of GAL or GLUC was ingested in a 6% concentrate fluid form 1 hr preexercise and then during exercise at a rate of 37 ± 3 g/hr. Performance variables were recorded for all 1- and 4-km efforts, all interspersed intervals, and the total 100-km distance. Noninvasive indicators of work intensity (heart rate [HR] and rating of perceived exertion) were also recorded.


Times taken to complete the 100-km performance trial were 8,298 ± 502 and 8,509 ± 578 s (p = .132), with mean power outputs of 271 ± 37 and 256 ± 45 W (p = .200), for GAL and GLUC, respectively. Mean HR did not differ (GAL 157 ± 7 and GLUC 157 ± 7 beats/min, p = .886). A main effect of carbohydrate (CHO) type on time to complete 4-km efforts occurred, with no CHO Type × Effort Order interaction observed. No main effect of CHO type or interaction of CHO Type × Sequential Order occurred for 1-km efforts.


A 6% GAL drink does not enhance performance time during a self-paced cycling performance trial in highly trained endurance cyclists compared with a formula typically used by endurance athletes but may improve the ability to produce intermediate self-paced efforts.

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Aaron Raman, Paul W. Macdermid, Toby Mündel, Michael Mann and Stephen R. Stannard

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether a high carbohydrate diet in the days before movement patterns simulating a squash match would increase carbohydrate oxidation during the match, and alter physical performance. Nine New Zealand level squash players were recruited to complete a simulated squash match on two occasions: 1) following a 48-hr high carbohydrate (11.1g·kg−1); and 2) following a calorie-matched low carbohydrate (2.1 g·kg−1) diet. The interventions were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, cross-over design. The match simulation was designed to mimic a five-game match lasting approximately 1 hr. Performance was measured as time to complete each game. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate were continuously collected throughout the trial using a portable gas analysis system. Capillary blood glucose and lactate samples were obtained during a 90 s rest period between each game. Rating of perceived exertion was also recorded after each set. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher during exercise following the high CHO diet (0.80 vs. 0.76) p < .001) and this was associated with significantly faster time to complete the games (2340 ± 189 s vs. 2416 ± 128 s, p = .036). Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were also significantly higher in the high carbohydrate condition (p = .038 and p = .021 respectively). These results suggest that ingestion of a diet high in carbohydrate (>10 g/kg body weight) preceding simulated competitive squash produces increased rates of carbohydrate oxidation and maintains higher blood glucose concentrations. These metabolic effects were associated with improved physical performance.