With the rise of cultural diversity in populations, researchers are faced with new issues, such as working with participants from other cultures that speak different languages. This research note presents a methodology developed by Vallerand (1989) in the psychological field that translates and validates questionnaires and inventories developed for a specific culture. This cross-cultural technique has seven steps and insures that the instrument will provide data that are valid and reliable in the targeted population. The seven steps are defined, and examples of results from a study using this methodology are provided.
Dominique Banville, Pauline Desrosiers, and Yvette Genet-Volet
Pauline Desrosiers, Yvette Genet-Volet, and Paul Godbout
The purpose of this study was to illustrate how experienced teachers assess students’ learning. Thirteen middle and high school physical education teachers (Grades 7 to 11) were observed during one or two teaching units over a total of 183 lessons. The 62 assessment instruments used by the teachers during those 183 lessons were analyzed from several perspectives: the integration of assessment to the teaching-learning process, the aspects assessed, and the characteristics of the instruments. For integration of assessment, 71% of the instruments were used for preassessment or formative assessment purposes. Regarding aspects assessed, the instruments were used 77% of the time to assess both technical and tactical skills. With respect to their characteristics, 70% of the assessment instruments consisted of a one-sided sheet, with a majority designed to assess one student. In most cases the collection of information was based either on a rating scale, checklist, or a combination of both.