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Cristian Jaque, Phillip Véliz, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Jason Moran, Paulo Gentil, and Jorge Cancino

The authors compared the effects of bodyweight resistance training at moderate- or high-speed conditions on muscle power, velocity of movement, and functional performance in older females. In a randomized, single-blinded noncontrolled trial, participants completed 12 weeks (three sessions/week) of bodyweight resistance training at high (n = 14; age = 70.6 ± 4.3 years) or moderate (n = 12; age = 72.8 ± 4.2 years) speeds. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance (Group × Time) with α level set at <.05. After the intervention, timed up and go test performance (p < .05) and the rising from a chair test mean (22.4%) and maximal velocity (28.5%), mean (24.4%) and maximal power (27.7%), normalized mean (25.1%), and normalized maximal power (28.5%) increased in the high-speed group (p < .05). However, the moderate-speed group achieved no improvements (Δ6.7–14.4%; p > .2). The authors conclude that high-speed bodyweight resistance training is an effective and economically practical strategy to improve the functional capacity of older women relevant to daily life activities.

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Matheus Barbalho, Victor S. Coswig, James Steele, James P. Fisher, Jurgen Giessing, and Paulo Gentil

This article has been retracted at the request of the authors on April 16, 2020. They performed an a posteriori analysis of the data and identified inconsistencies that changed their evaluation of the results. The authors apologize for the inconvenience.

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Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Cristian Alvarez, Felipe García-Pinillos, Paulo Gentil, Jason Moran, Lucas A. Pereira, and Irineu Loturco

Purpose: To compare the effects of plyometric drop jump (DJ) training against those induced by regular soccer training and assess the transference effect coefficient (TEC) of DJs (“trained exercises”) performed from 20- (DJ20) and 40-cm (DJ40) height boxes with respect to different physical qualities (jumping, linear and change of direction speed, kicking, endurance, and maximal strength) in youth male soccer players. Methods: Participants were randomly divided into a control group (n = 20; age: 13.5 [1.9] y) and a DJ training group (n = 19; age: 13.2 [1.8] y), and trained for 7 weeks. A 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with the within-subject factor time (preintervention and postintervention) and between-subject factor group (intervention vs control) was performed. To calculate the TECs between the trained exercises (DJ20 and DJ40) and the physical tests, the ratio between the “result gains” (effect size [ES]) in the analyzed physical qualities and the result gains in the trained exercises were calculated. The TECs were only calculated for variables presenting an ES ≥ 0.2. Results: Significant improvements (ES = 0.21–0.46; P < .05) were observed in the DJ training group, except in linear sprint performance. The control group improved only the maximal strength (ES = 0.28; P < .05). Significant differences were observed in all variables (ES = 0.20–0.55; P < .05) in favor of the DJ training group, except for maximal strength (group × time interaction). Conclusions: A plyometric training scheme based on DJs was able to significantly improve the physical performance of youth male soccer players. Overall, greater TECs were observed for DJ40 (0.58–1.28) than DJ20 (0.55–1.21).

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Paulo Gentil, Tulio Cesar de Lima Lins, Ricardo Moreno Lima, Breno Silva de Abreu, Dario Grattapaglia, Martim Bottaro, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, and Rinaldo Wellerson Pereira

The current study investigated the association between vitamin-D-receptor (VDR) genotypes with bone-mineral density (BMD) and its interaction with physical activity level (PAL). Individuals in a sample of 192 volunteers (67.84 ± 5.23 years) underwent BMD evaluation and were genotyped for VDR ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms. Haplotypes were reconstructed through expectation-maximization algorithm, and regression-based haplotype-specific association tests were performed with studied phenotypes. None of the polymorphisms were associated with BMD at any site; however, haplotype was associated with femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD. Interaction between PAL and VDR genotypes was significant for the FokI polymorphism at femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD. The FokI T/T genotype was associated with higher BMD in active women. It was concluded that VDR haplotypes, but not genotypes, are associated with femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD in post-menopausal women. Moreover, the results suggest that VDR FokI polymorphism might be a potential determinant of BMD response to physical activity.

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Marisete P. Safons, Milene S.N. de Lima, Karina F.L. Gonçalves, Gerson A. de Souza Junior, Tito L.C. Barreto, Anderson José S. Oliveira, Alexandre L.A. Ribeiro, Clarissa C. dos Santos Couto Paz, Paulo Gentil, Martim Bottaro, and Wagner R. Martins

The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training with machines and elastic tubes on functional capacity and muscular strength in older women aged 60 years or over. The participants were randomized into two groups: a machine group (n = 23) and an elastic group (n = 20). They performed 12 weeks of progressive resistance training, twice a week, with similar exercises. Outcomes were assessed at three time points: baseline, postintervention, and 8 weeks after the end of the training. A significant intragroup effect was demonstrated for both groups at postintervention on functional tests and muscle strength. For the functional reach test and elbow flexion strength (180°/s), only the machine group demonstrated significant intragroup differences. No differences were observed between groups for any outcome. At the 8-week follow-up, functional capacity outcome values were maintained. The muscle strength outcome values decreased to baseline scores, without differences between groups.