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Open access

Journal of Physical Activity and Health’s 2021 in Review

Pedro C. Hallal

Open access

Going Global as JPAH Enters Adulthood

Pedro C. Hallal

Open access

Toward 1000 Submissions in 2021: JPAH’s First Trimester Report

Pedro C. Hallal

Free access

Journal of Physical Activity and Health’s 2022 in Review

Pedro C. Hallal

Restricted access

Temporal Trends in Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

Alan G. Knuth and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

In spite of all accumulated scientific knowledge on the benefits of physical activity (PA) for health, high rates of sedentary lifestyle are still observed worldwide. The aim of this study was to systematically review articles on temporal trends of PA and fitness, with emphasis on differences between children/adolescents and adults.

Methods:

An electronic search at the Medline/PubMed database was carried out using the following combination of keywords: temporal trends or trends or surveillance or monitoring and PA or exercise or physical fitness or motor activity or sedentary or fitness.

Results:

By using this strategy, 23,088 manuscripts were detected. After examination, 41 articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria, and were, therefore, included. The data currently available in the literature for adults shows that leisure-time activity levels tend to be increasing over time, while occupational-related PA is decreasing over time. Youth PA seems to be decreasing over time, including a lower level of activity in physical education classes. As a consequence, fitness levels are also declining.

Conclusion:

PA surveillance must be strongly encouraged in all settings and age groups. Special attention must be paid to low and middle-income countries, where PA surveillance is virtually inexistent.

Restricted access

Measurement of Physical Activity by Self-Report in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: More of the Same Is not Enough

Pedro C. Hallal, Sandra Matsudo, and José C. Farias Jr.

Restricted access

Physical Activity Levels According to Physical and Social Environmental Factors in a Sample of Adults Living in South Brazil

Tales C. Amorim, Mario R. Azevedo, and Pedro C. Hallal

Objective:

To evaluate the association between the physical and social environment and physical activity (leisure-time and transport-related) in a population-based sample of adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study including 972 adults (20−69 years) living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Environmental variables were assessed using a modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale.

Results:

69.8% (95% CI = 66.9−72.7) and 51.9% (95% CI = 48.8−55.1) of the subjects did not reach 150 min/wk on leisure-time and transport-related physical activity, respectively. Subjects living near green areas were more likely to be active in leisure-time, as well as those who reported to live in safe neighborhoods. Transport-related physical activity was higher among individuals living in areas with garbage accumulation, and was lower among those living in neighborhoods which are difficult to walk or cycle due to traffic. Social support was strongly associated with leisure-time physical activity.

Conclusions:

Safety investments, which are urgently required in Brazil, are likely to have a desirable side effect at increasing physical activity at the population level. Building enjoyable and safe public spaces for physical activity practice must be prioritized.

Restricted access

Who Are the Users of Urban Parks? A Study With Adults From Curitiba, Brazil

Rogerio Fermino, Rodrigo Reis, Pedro C. Hallal, and Andrew T. Kaczynski

Background:

The aim of this study was to analyze how sociodemographic characteristics, health, characteristics of quality of life, and perceptions of places are associated with park use in Curitiba, Brazil.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study with face-toface interviews was conducted with 1461 adults who lived within the area of 500 m near 8 parks. The survey included questions about gender, age, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, body mass index, perceived health, number of morbidities, perception of quality of life, physical environment, leisure opportunities, self-satisfaction, and satisfaction with the park. The use of a specific park near the residence was identified as 1 of 3 outcomes: park use versus nonuse, park use ≥ 1 time/wk, and park use ≥ 3 times/wk. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between the independent variables and each level of park use.

Results:

Overall park use (60.9%) and ≥ 1 time/wk (32.2%) and ≥ 3 times/wk use (16.8%) were associated with age and leisure opportunities. Leisure opportunities and park satisfaction were related to more frequent visits to these outdoor areas.

Conclusions:

These results can be used in guiding interventions that improve the quality of parks and other outdoor areas and offer leisure opportunities to the community.

Restricted access

Independent and Combined Associations of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Fatness With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Brazilian Youth

Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann, Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann, and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat (% fat) on total cholesterol (TC) and blood pressure (BP) in male and female youth.

Methods:

1442 (721 girls) children and adolescents aged 7–12 years were randomly selected. CRF, BMI, % fat (predictor variables), TC, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; outcome variables) were measured. Using standardized cut-off points, we created categories for each variable. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to test the independent influence of predictors on outcomes.

Results:

The prevalence of increased TC, SBP, and DBP were 34.4% (95% CI 31.9–37.0), 9.1% (95% CI 7.5–10.6), and 15.5% (95% CI 13.5–17.4), respectively. In multivariable analyses, CRF was a significant predictor of all outcome variables (P < .05). BMI was associated with SBP and DBP (P < .05) and % fat was associated only with SBP (P < .05). CRF had stronger associations with TC than BMI, whereas the opposite was observed for SBP and DBP.

Conclusions:

CRF and BMI are independently associated to TC and BP in male and female youth, and individuals unfit/overweight have greater likelihood of presenting these risk factors.

Free access

Launch of the Global Observatory for Physical Education (GoPE!)

João Martins, Marcos Onofre, and Pedro C. Hallal