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Pedro Curi Hallal and Fernando Vinholes Siqueira

Background:

Physical inactivity is now a public health priority because of the high rates of inactivity observed worldwide. Achievement of physical activity guidelines could be attained with vigorous, moderate, or both activities combined. Our aim was to explore the prevalence and correlates of compliance with vigorous physical activity guidelines (CVAG).

Methods:

Cross-sectional population-based survey in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city, including 3182 adults (≥ 20 years). The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied by face-to-face interviews. CVAG was defined as at least 60 min/wk of vigorous activity.

Results:

Only 29% of the subjects achieved the vigorous activity threshold. Women, older adults, individuals with low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) were less likely to present CVAG. Compliance with moderate activity guidelines was associated with a higher likelihood of CVAG.

Conclusions:

Concurrent promotion of moderate and vigorous physical activities is warranted in terms of public health.

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Juliano Peixoto Bastos, Cora Luiza Pavin Araújo and Pedro Curi Hallal

Background:

We aimed to describe levels of physical activity (PA) in adolescents living in southern Brazil and to explore associations between PA levels and demographic, socioeconomic, health-related, and parental variables. A further aim was to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire used.

Methods:

We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study including 857 adolescents selected randomly. Insufficient PA was defined as <300 min/wk of MVPA. PA data collected by questionnaire were compared with pedometer counts and with a longer version of the questionnaire in a subsample of 92 adolescents.

Results:

Reliability of the questionnaire was good, and its validity in comparison with a longer questionnaire was also satisfactory. In comparison with pedometer data, the questionnaire presented moderate agreement. The prevalence of insufficient PA in the whole sample was 69.8% (95% CI = 66.7–72.9). Boys were more active than girls. The prevalence of insufficient PA increased with age in girls but not in boys. Among boys, those from low socioeconomic levels were more likely to be sedentary. Among girls, paternal PA was directly associated with adolescent activity levels.

Conclusions:

Urgent strategies aimed at increasing levels of activity of adolescents are necessary in Brazil given the high prevalence of insufficient PA detected in this study. The variables associated with insufficient PA varied between boys and girls.

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Renata Moraes Bielemann, Virgílio Viana Ramires, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Pedro Curi Hallal and Bernardo Lessa Horta

Background:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity and triglyceride and HDLc levels in young male adults.

Methods:

We used information about males belonging 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Physical activity in 4 domains (leisure time, transportation, household, and occupation) was assessed by self-report in participants of the cohort at ages of 18 and 23 years. Subjects were active if reached the recommendation of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At 23 years of age, blood sample was collected, and triglycerides and HDLc levels estimated. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression were used to adjust the estimates for confounders.

Results:

Males who were inactive at 18 and active at 23 years had 41% lower risk (β = 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.89) for borderline-high triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL) as compared with those who were inactive at both follow-ups. No association was found between changes of physical activity and HDLc level. In cross-sectional analyses, greater HDLc levels were found in active subjects in 4 domains, whereas there was no difference in HDL levels according physical activity during leisure time.

Conclusion:

Becoming active from adolescence to early adulthood reduced the risk for high triglycerides. Current physical activity was associated with greater HDLc levels.

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Pedro Curi Hallal, Cesar Gomes Victora, Jonathan Charles Kingdon Wells, Rosângela Costa Lima and Neiva Jorge Valle

Background:

Our study aims to compare the short and full-length International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ).

Methods:

Both versions were completed by 186 subjects >14 y living in southern Brazil. Half answered the short and then the long version; the remaining subjects followed the reverse order. Physical inactivity (PI) was defined as <150 min/wk spent in moderate or vigorous activities. The Bland and Altman method and the kappa statistic were used to assess agreement between the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively.

Results:

The prevalence of PI was 50% higher with the short IPAQ (42% vs. 28%). The kappa value was 53.7%. Although the correlation coefficient was moderately high (r=0.61), agreement between methods was low.

Conclusions:

Both analyses used show that the short and full-length IPAQ versions have poor agreement. Utilization of inappropriate statistics would lead to misinterpretation. Researchers should exercise care before comparing studies using different IPAQ versions.

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Inacio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Alan Goularte Knuth, Grégore Iven Mielke, Mario Renato Azevedo, Helen Gonçalves and Pedro Curi Hallal

Background:

Most of physical activity surveillance data are derived from high-income countries. The aim of the current study was to report time trends in leisure-time physical activity.

Methods:

Population-based surveys were conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil in 2003 and 2010, including individuals aged 20+ years. Physical activity was assessed using the leisure-time section of the long version of the IPAQ. A cut-off point of 150 min/wk was used in the analyses. Methodologies were virtually identical in both surveys.

Results:

In 2003, 26.8% (95% CI 24.3; 29.2) of the participants were classified as active in leisuretime, as compared with 24.4% (95% CI 22.6; 26.2) in 2010. The proportion of subjects reporting 0 minutes per week of walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity practice also did not vary between 2003 and 2010. However, the proportion of active adults decreased from 39.9% (95% CI 33.0; 42.7) in 2003 to 29.7% (95% CI 24.9; 34.5) in 2010 among high-income participants. Males were more active than females in both surveys.

Conclusions:

Leisure-time physical activity is stable among adults living in the South of Brazil, but high-income participants are becoming less active over time. Scaling up effective and promising physical activity interventions is urgently needed in Brazil.

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Marui Weber Corseuil Giehl, Pedro Curi Hallal, Claudia Weber Corseuil, Ione J. Ceola Schneider and Eleonora d’Orsi

Background:

Understanding the built environment influence on specific domains of walking is important for public health interventions to increase physical activity levels among older adults.

Purpose:

The purpose was to investigate the association between built environment characteristics and walking among older adults.

Methods:

A population-based study was performed in 80 census tracts in Florianópolis, Brazil, including 1,705 older adults (60+ years old). Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Built environment characteristics were assessed through a geographic information system. All analyses were conducted through a multilevel logistic regression.

Results:

Individuals living in neighborhoods with a higher population density (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–3.42), with a higher street connectivity (OR: 1.85; 95% CI, 1.16–2.94), a higher sidewalk proportion (OR: 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11–2.83), and paved streets (medium tertile: OR: 1.61, 95% CI, 1.04–2.49; highest tertile: OR: 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36–3.27) were more likely to walk for transportation. Regarding walking for leisure, only 2 predictors were associated, area income (OR: 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04–2.12) and street density (OR: 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02–2.10).

Conclusions:

Improving the neighborhood built environment is an important step for achieving higher levels of walking in the elderly population in a middle-income country.

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Felipe Fossati Reichert, Ana Maria Batista Menezes, Jonathan Charles Kingdom Wells, Ulf Ekelund, Fabiane Machado Rodrigues and Pedro Curi Hallal

Background:

Prospective studies on physical activity (PA), diet, and body composition in adolescents are lacking, particularly outside high-income countries.

Goals:

To describe the methods used to assess these variables in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort and to discuss the fieldwork challenges faced and alternatives to overcome them.

Methods:

In 2006–07 a subsample of the 1993 Pelotas cohort was revisited. PA was estimated using questionnaires, a combined heart-rate and motion sensor (Acti-Heart), and the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Diet was investigated by questionnaire. Total body water was determined by stable isotopes. Thirty individuals had their total energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water. All data were collected at participants’ home.

Results:

The logistics of the fieldwork and the difficulties in undertaking the study and alternatives to overcome them are presented. Preliminary analyses show that 511 individuals were traced (response rate = 90.0%). Compliance of both adolescents and their families for the motion sensors and body-composition measurements was excellent.

Conclusions:

The authors conclude that it is feasible to carry out high-quality studies on PA in developing countries. They hope the article will be useful to other researchers interested in carrying out similar studies.

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Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da Silva, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Philip H. Quanjer, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Helen Gonçalves, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Pedro Curi Hallal, Fernando Barros and Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

Background:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity from 11 to 15 years of age and pulmonary function (PF) gain from 15 to 18 years of age among adolescents in a birth cohort in Brazil.

Methods:

Longitudinal analysis of the individuals participating in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at ages 11 and 15, spirometry was performed at ages 15 and 18 (n = 3571). Outcome variables assessed were gains in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Crude and adjusted linear regressions, stratified by sex, and mediation analyses were performed.

Results:

Boys who were active (leisure-time and total physical activity) at ages 11 and 15 had higher gains in FEV1, FVC, and PEF than those who were inactive. Vigorous-intensity physical activity in boys was also associated with FEV1 and FVC gains. Mediation analyses showed that height at age 18 accounted for 5% to 75% of the association between physical activity and PF gains. No significant associations were found among girls.

Conclusions:

Physical activity in early adolescence is associated with gains in PF by the end of adolescence in boys.

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Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, Markus Vinicius Nahas, Pedro Curi Hallal, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Alex Antônio Florindo and Simone Storino Honda de Barros

Background:

We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention on the promotion of physical activity among high school students in Brazil: the Saude na Boa project.

Methods:

A school-based, randomized trial was carried out in 2 Brazilian cities: Recife (northeast) and Florianopolis (south). Ten schools in each city were matched by size and location, and randomized into intervention or control groups. The intervention included environmental/organizational changes, physical activity education, and personnel training and engagement. Students age 15 to 24 years were evaluated at baseline and 9 months later (end of school year).

Results:

Although similar at baseline, after the intervention, the control group reported significantly fewer d/wk accumulating 60 minutes+ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in comparison with the intervention group (2.6 versus 3.3, P < .001). The prevalence of inactivity (0 days per week) rose in the control and decreased in the intervention group. The odds ratio for engaging at least once per week in physical activity associated with the intervention was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.24–2.71) in the unadjusted analysis and 1.88 (95% CI = 1.27–2.79) after controlling for gender.

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Pedro Curi Hallal, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Fernando Vinholes Siqueira, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Juliano Peixoto Bastos, Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Mario Renato Azevedo and Ulf Ekelund

Objectives:

The objective of this study was to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels in adults and their association with sex, age, and education level across categories of body mass index (BMI).

Methods:

We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study including 3100 individuals age ≥20 years living in Pelotas, Brazil. PA was assessed using the leisure-time section of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. “No PA” was defined as zero minutes of activity/week; “insuffcient PA” was defined as <150 minutes of activity/week; “high PA” was defined as ≥500 minutes of activity/week. BMI was categorized into normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥30 kg/m2).

Results:

The prevalence of insufficient PA was 71.6% among normal BMI subjects, 71.3% among overweight individuals, and 73.7% among obese ones (P = .67). No PA and high PA were also not associated with BMI. The associations between sex, age, and education level and PA levels tended to be stronger among normal-weight individuals compared with overweight and obese individuals. Among the obese, most associations were not significant. Among normal-weight individuals, higher PA levels were observed in men, young adults, and those with higher education.

Conclusions:

Variables associated with leisure-time PA differed between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Studies on PA correlates might benefit from stratifying by BMI.