The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Play Practice (PP) instruction on the performance of table tennis skills. Fifty-six college students in four intact classes were taught by two instructors using PP and Skill-focused Instruction (SI). A nonequivalent control/comparison group experimental design with pre and post measures was used. Three separate ANOVAs with a repeated measure (time effect) were conducted to examine the effects of PP and SI for each of the three dependent variables: (a) forehand drive accuracy, (b) forehand attack, and (c) serve. Results demonstrated that both PP and SI conditions were effective in improving participants’ skills in forehand drive, forehand attack, and serving from pre- to posttest. However, PP was more effective in improving participants’ skills in forehand attack and serving from pre to post as compared with SI.
Peng Zhang, Phillip Ward, Weidong Li, Sue Sutherland and Jackie Goodway
Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of self-reported leisure-time physical activity, converted to kilocalorie expenditure and expressed as average daily expenditure, on all-cause mortality among older males 65 years of age and older in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging (SOA). Mean age of participants was 75.4 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models evaluated the predictors of overall survival. Kilocalorie expenditure (p = .01), Black race (p = .02), young age (p < .00), fewer depressive symptoms (p = .00), and absence of cognitive impairment (p < .00) were significant independent predictors of higher rates of survival. Low body mass index was a significant independent predictor of death (p = .03). Veteran status did not improve survival. Further study about kilocalorie expenditure and mortality could lead to reductions in premature mortality in community-dwelling older men in the Deep South.
Jason E. Hsu, Qiyu Peng, David A. Schafer, Jason L. Koh, Gordon W. Nuber and Li-Qun Zhang
The flexor-pronator mass is thought to be the primary dynamic valgus stabilizer of the elbow and protects the ulnar collateral ligament. However, in vivo multiaxis actions of individual muscles of the flexor-pronator group and their roles in valgus stability have not been investigated quantitatively. This study tested the hypothesis that individual muscles of the flexor-pronator muscle group produce a significant varus moment that provides elbow valgus stability. The flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and pronator teres were selectively activated, and the resulting multiaxis moments at the elbow measured at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of elbow flexion using a six-axis force sensor were analyzed for their role in generating varus moment and protecting the ulnar collateral ligament. Considerable off-axis moments were generated by each muscle tested. Through the range of elbow flexion, the varus moment was the major component of the multiaxis action of the flexor carpi ulnaris (p < .001). The flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres had significant actions as elbow flexors and pronators (p ≤ .032); these muscles also had a significant varus contribution at 90° elbow flexion (p ≤.019). The results suggest that the flexor-pronator muscle group plays an important role in valgus stability of the elbow. In particular, the flexor carpi ulnaris creates a significant varus moment, which is important in unloading and protecting the ulnar collateral ligament. Rehabilitation and strengthening of the flexor-pronator muscle group may help prevent failure of the ulnar collateral ligament and may also help compensate for a medially insufficient elbow.