Nilam Ram and Penny McCullagh
Although self-modeling has been effective in modifying behaviors in a variety of settings, little research has been completed in the physical domain. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of self-modeling on performance and self-efficacy using a sport skill and to explore the cognitive processes underlying self-modeling. A multiple baseline single-subject design was used wherein five intermediate level volleyball players were given a self-modeling intervention. Performance outcome results indicated that self-modeling may contribute to increases in serve accuracy. Performance form and selfefficacy results were inconclusive. Using a think-aloud protocol, it was noted that although the participants found the images of themselves “shocking,” the images command cognitive resources. Postintervention interviews revealed that participants found the self-modeling intervention useful and that it led to changes in behavior and motivation.
Joanna Starek and Penny McCullagh
The present study compared the effects of two types of modeling, self- and other-modeling, on learning elementary swimming skills. Specifically, potential differences between the two modeling conditions in swimming performance, swimming self-efficacy, and state anxiety were investigated. Participants were adult volunteers from a college community. Ages ranged from 20 to 58. Each participant took five individual swimming lessons. Results indicated that participants in the self-modeling condition demonstrated better swimming performance by the fourth swim session than participants in the other-modeling condition. No differences were found between modeling conditions on either swimming self-efficacy or state anxiety. Potential reasons for the difference in performance are identified and discussed.