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Peter A. Hastie

Purpose:

The purpose of this paper was to review the research literature in physical education to establish what is currently known about the extent to which the national outcome goals have been achieved.

Method:

Papers were selected through an initial search of the EBSCO database, with main identifiers included being physical education, physical activity, and physical fitness, combined with the descriptors that represented the key idea of each of the give content standards. Further journal articles were then obtained through the citations and references in the original documents.

Results:

While there is a dearth of results that directly accounts for the accomplishment of the standards, the research suggests that the expectations of performance, as outlined in the standards, are being realized by less than half of all students participating in physical education.

Discussion:

The discussion presents a model for moving research in the field forward, and suggests there is a need for descriptive studies which provide rich details of the contexts where highly effective, as well as sophisticated interventions whose goal is to produce significant change in selected student outcomes.

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Peter A. Hastie

The aim of this paper was to quantify teacher behaviors that were associated with high levels of student involvement and, hence, provide further understanding of student accountability. Two observation instruments were used to collect data from teachers during a secondary school volleyball unit. Results showed that the more effective teacher (as measured by ALT-PE) spent more lesson time in the functional behaviors of concurrent instruction and intervening instruction, whereas the less effective teachers spent more time in noninteractive behaviors such as observing. Furthermore, specific cycles of teaching behaviors that discriminated between the effective and less effective teachers were identified. The results are explained in terms of the development of a successful instructional accountability system being developed by the effective teacher in contrast to the instructional pseudoaccountability of the less effective teachers.

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Peter A. Hastie

The behavioral ecology model was used to examine tasks and accountability in a secondary school outdoor adventure camp. Similar to results in physical education, the teachers held students strongly accountable for accomplishing managerial tasks, whereas accomplishing instructional tasks saw greater variance of performance outcomes. However, in significant contrast to the school setting, there were high levels of task involvement in the absence of any formal accountability. Although students were not given grades for the camp, many students were fully involved in all instructional tasks. The explanation for this is twofold. First, the nature of instructional tasks was such that ambiguity and risk could be manipulated by students to present an optimal level of challenge. Second, the student social system actually drove the instructional tasks system, whereby the students’ social agenda actually encouraged and supported full participation. The implications for teaching physical education are discussed.

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Peter A. Hastie

This study examined a sixth-grade physical education class during participation in a speedball unit using the “sport education” model (Siedentop, 1994). In this unit, students took varying roles, including player, coach, referee, scorer, and statistician. The unit was examined using systematic observation and qualitative techniques. Particular attention was placed on the tasks students were expected to complete and the degree of congruence between their actions and the stated task. Also under investigation were the students’ reactions to their differing roles. Quantitative results indicated high levels of student engagement in game play and scrimmage contexts, and particularly high levels of congruent behaviors in the nonplaying roles. Levels of off-task behaviors were minimal throughout. Students reported through questionnaires and interviews that they enjoyed taking administrative roles, and they showed distinct preference for remaining in the same team for the entire season. A strong preference for student coaches over teacher instruction was also reported.

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Peter A. Hastie

As the children were having their half time oranges, and the coach was busily organizing the team so that “everyone will be getting a turn,” I noticed one of the players at the back had long hair and an earring. I thought this was quite strange, since the fashion for nine year old boys is more of a prickle cut these days. I didn’t take too much notice as I was more interested in what the coach was saying. Then he mentioned that Natalie would be changing from the forwards to the backs, and it struck me. Yes it was a girl! So much for my stereotype that footy was a boy’s only game.

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Peter A. Hastie

This paper examines the literature within sport pedagogy that addresses early sport specialization. The paper is presented in two sections. First, research on a number of common sense assumptions about early specialization is examined from a pedagogical perspective: (a) Is limiting youths’ experiences to a single sport the best path to elite status? (b) Do early specializers receive better coaching? (c) Do coaches of early specializers have better sport content knowledge? (d) Do coaches of early specializers have better planning behaviors? (e) Do instructional climates differ between specialized and diversified coaching settings? Second, a research agenda from a pedagogical perspective is proposed for answering the questions posed in the first section, as well as the various assessments and protocols that would allow for these questions to be answered.

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Peter A. Hastie

This study examined the participation and perceptions of a cohort of sixth-grade girls as they participated in a season of floor hockey that followed a sport education format. Thirty-five girls and 37 boys completed a 20-lesson season. During the initial skills practice sessions and preseason scrimmages, no significant differences in opportunities to respond (either in rate per minute or percentage of success) were found between the girls and boys. During the formal competition phase, boys had significantly more responses per minute and higher success levels. Nevertheless, the scores for girls during this phase exceeded those of earlier in the season. During interviews following the unit, girls commented that they enjoyed playing on mixed sex teams and taking increasing responsibility for the unit, even though some of the boys tended to dominate decisions and the power roles such as captain and referee.

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Peter A. Hastie

This study provides an ecological analysis of a sport education season. Through the examination of the tasks and accountability operating in this season, it was determined that the high level of enthusiastic student engagement was due to the presence of three vectors, all of which make positive contributions to sustaining the program of action. These vectors include the teacher’s managerial task system, the student social system, and the content-embedded accountability inherent in the curriculum model. Sport education provides a multidimensional program of action, in contrast to more traditional physical education settings, where teachers either push students through the curriculum with strong external accountability as a way of achieving and sustaining order, or retreat to a curricular zone of safety and negotiate minimum student work for cooperation in the managerial system.

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Peter A. Hastie and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose:

This paper provides a potential roadmap for the future development of research on Sport Education. In the first part of the paper, research on each of the elements of competence, literacy and enthusiasm are reviewed, with the aim of providing evidence to support the idea that the model can achieve its goals. For each of these goals we provide some potential directions which we believe are important for moving research on Sport Education forward.

Development:

These avenues include more attention to appropriate practices for enhancing student-coach effectiveness, ways to enhance the development of more equitable and inclusive class environments within the model, as well as the potential transfer of Sport Education experiences to physical activity environments beyond physical education.

Design:

Research designs need to include how teachers and students give value and significance to what they teach and what they learn, respectively. This could be achieved through researchers considering more prolonged action-based research designs that allow a close monitoring of the implementation of pedagogical approaches. These case studies can provide guidance for future pedagogical iterations of the model that can be applied within more generalizable group designs.

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Peter A. Hastie and Andrew Pickwell

This study examined the operations of a student social system within an elective physical education dance class. Its methodology is based on the findings of Allen (1986), who determined that students have two main agendas in classes, namely, to give teachers what they want while having fun and socializing with classmates. Consistent with previous findings, many students in this study were particularly adept at finding ways to minimize work and have fun while still doing enough to pass the course. These findings are explained in conjunction with the task structure and accountability systems put in place by the teacher. That is, the teacher seemed to be content to trade off lower levels of participation in the instructional task system for at least nondisruptive behavior, thereby allowing a relatively unimpeded achievement of the students’ social objectives.