Adolescent sport participants, particularly girls, continue to drop out of sport at alarmingly high rates, which presents an opportunity for new sport programs to enter the marketplace to better cater to those participants. Starting new sport programs, however, presents significant challenges, including acquiring and mobilizing resources in innovative ways. Using theory in sport development and the resource-based view, the authors examined six emergent sport programs for girls within the United States and United Kingdom to identify the resources obtained and mobilized to create new and distinctive sport opportunities in a crowded marketplace. Following a case study approach, data from site visits and interviews with 137 individuals were analyzed using within- and across-case analysis. The findings reveal the resources needed to grow the programs, the ways in which those resources are attained, and strategies to mobilize resource bundles to maximize sport opportunities by differentiating programs from traditional, mainstream sport opportunities. The findings also highlight the distinctive opportunities and challenges for sport organizers in both top-down and bottom-up sport development systems. This study informs theory in sport development and provides insight for creatively designing and delivering sport opportunities that expand overall sport participation for adolescent girls.
Marlene A. Dixon, B. Christine Green, Arden Anderson, and Peter Evans
Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken, and Brendan Egan
The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high-intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. A total of 18 male team sport athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40-m maximum shuttle run test, which incorporates 10 × 40-m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; noncaffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (%), did not differ (p = .209; effect size = 0.16; N = 18) between CAF (5.00 ± 2.84%) and PLA (5.43 ± 2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (<40 mg/day, n = 10) experienced an attenuation of sprint performance decrement during CAF relative to PLA (5.53 ± 3.12% vs. 6.53 ± 2.91%, respectively; p = .049; effect size =0.33); an effect not observed in moderate/high habitual caffeine consumers (>130 mg/day, n = 6; 3.98 ± 2.57% vs. 3.80 ± 1.79%, respectively; p = .684; effect size = 0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.
Wayne W. Campbell, Lyndon J.O. Joseph, Richard E. Ostlund Jr., Richard A. Anderson, Peter A. Farrell, and William J. Evans
This study assessed the effects of resistive training (RT) with or without chromium picolinate (Cr-pic) supplementation on the 24-h urinary excretions of myo-inositol, D-chiro-inositol, and pinitol, as well as clinical indices of kidney and liver functions. Thirty-two nondiabetic subjects, age 62 ± 4 y, performed RT twice weekly for 12 wk and consumed either 924 μg Cr/d as Cr-pic (n = 17) or a placebo (n = 15). Whole-body strength increased in all subjects by 20% and urinary chromium excretion increased 47-fold in the Cr-pic group. Urinary myo-inositol, D-chiro-inositol, and pinitol were not changed with RT or influenced by Cr-pic. Serum indices of kidney and liver functions were within clinically normal ranges at baseline and the end of the study. These results suggest that RT did not influence the urinary excretions of inositols. High dose Cr-pic did not influence the urinary excretion of inositols and the selected indices of kidney and liver functions in conjunction with RT