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Peter R. Francis, Michael Leigh, and Aldis Berzins

The Standardized Test Method for Shock-Absorbing Properties of Playing Surface Systems and Materials (ASTM F-355) was used to evaluate the shock absorbing characteristics of 13 floors used for dance exercise. Acceleration-time histories indicated that the floors differed markedly in their shock absorbing behavior. The complex nature of the acceleration-time histories led to the conclusion that descriptors that have previously been used to quantify shock absorbing data were inadequate for the floors examined in this investigation. An additional procedure was devised in order to examine potentially injurious stresses on a performer while executing a common dance exercise movement performed on each of the 13 floors tested. It was concluded that the two testing procedures evaluated differing aspects of the shock absorbing mechanisms involved in dance exercise. However, a tentative relationship between the two corresponding data sets provided some support for the retention of ASTM F-355 as a reproducible test for the shock absorbing characteristics of floors.

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Peter Francis, Kay Gray, and Nic Perrem

Side-lying hip abduction is an action used during manual muscle testing and is also prescribed as a rehabilitation exercise to improve dynamic single-leg stability. Little is known about the functional cross-over of this activity. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between concentric hip abductor strength and performance of the Y-Balance test (YBT). Forty-five recreational gym users (27 male, age 26.2 [8.4] years; 18 female, age 27.4 [7.5] years) had dynamic single-leg stability and concentric hip abductor peak torque assessed in the nondominant limb using a YBT and isokinetic dynamometry, respectively. All components of the YBT had a moderate association with concentric hip abductor torque which were greater in the posteromedial (r = .574, p > .001) and posterolateral (r = .657, p > .001) directions compared to the anterior direction (r = .402, p = .006). Greater concentric hip abductor strength is associated with greater scores on components of the YBT, particularly the posterior reaches.

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Peter Francis, Cassie Oddy, and Mark I. Johnson

In a 27-year-old female triathlete, magnetic resonance imaging revealed mild thickening and edema at the calcaneal insertion of the plantar fascia, in keeping with a degree of plantar fasciitis. After 6 weeks of conservative treatment failed to elicit a return to sport, the patient engaged in six sessions of barefoot running (15–30 min) on a soft grass surface, without further conservative treatment. After two sessions of barefoot running, the patient was asymptomatic before, during, and after running. This outcome was maintained at the 6-week follow-up period. This is the first case report to use barefoot running as a treatment strategy for chronic heel pain. Barefoot running has the potential to reduce the load on the plantar fascia and warrants further investigation using a case series.

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Claire E. Francis, Patricia E. Longmuir, Charles Boyer, Lars Bo Andersen, Joel D. Barnes, Elena Boiarskaia, John Cairney, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Guy Faulkner, Beth P. Hands, John A. Hay, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Han C. G. Kemper, Duane Knudson, Meghann Lloyd, Thomas L. McKenzie, Tim S. Olds, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Roy J. Shephard, Weimo Zhu, and Mark S. Tremblay


The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children’s physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required.


Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores and score interpretation.


Delphi participant consensus was achieved for 64% (47/73) of statement topics, including a revised conceptual model, specific assessment protocols, the importance of longitudinal tracking, and the relative importance of individual protocols and composite scores. Divergent opinions remained regarding the inclusion of sleep time, assessment/scoring of the obstacle course assessment of motor skill, and the need for an overall physical literacy classification.


The revised CAPL model (overlapping domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge, encompassed by daily behavior) is appropriate for monitoring the physical literacy of children aged 8 to 12 years. Objectively measured domains (daily behavior, physical competence) have higher relative importance. The interpretation of CAPL results should be reevaluated as more data become available.