This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17–19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and combined effect of two instructional guidance variables, role switching and role definition, was investigated on learning outcomes. In all settings student pairs were given 20 min to learn BLS. Individual student performance was measured before (baseline), immediately after (intervention) and two weeks later (retention). Repeated ANOVA showed strong learning gains but no significant differences between groups for total BLS scores. However, at retention significantly more students from the most guided condition remembered and consequently performed all BLS skills. It is concluded that guidance comprising role switching and role definition enhances skill retention in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards.
Peter Iserbyt, Jan Elen, and Daniël Behets
Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers, and Peter Iserbyt
Background: Recess strategies that increase children’s physical activity and contribute to the daily 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are recommended. Methods: A cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effect of supervised versus organized recess on children’s participation, physical activity, play, and social behavior. In supervised recess, children were free to play, and physical education (PE) teachers ensured safety. In organized recess, PE teachers provided challenging tasks. Data were collected using systematic observation. Children (N = 281; 8–10 y) from 14 schools received a 6-day parkour unit in PE and three opportunities to participate in a 20-minute parkour recess. Schools were randomized over a supervised and organized parkour recess condition. Results: The majority of children participated in parkour recess (range = 56%–85%), with more boys participating in all 3 organized versus supervised recess sessions (57% vs 35%, P = .01). Boys spent more time in MVPA during organized recess (79% vs 71%, P = .02). Boys and girls spent more time in activity games during organized recess (59% vs 46%, P = .01; 59% vs 47%, P = .001). Conclusion: Organized recess attracted more children and made the largest contribution to daily MVPA.
Shu Cheng, Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, and Peter Iserbyt
Purpose: Our purpose was to investigate the effect of generalization of participation in parkour from physical education classes to organized parkour recess. Methods: A total of 143 (64 girls and 79 boys) third-grade elementary school children received a 12-lesson parkour sport education season in physical education. Voluntary participation in five organized parkour recess sessions was investigated. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) data in physical education, organized parkour recess, and traditional recess were collected. Results: Girls participated significantly more in organized parkour recess compared with boys (53% vs. 35%, p = .034). Boys achieved significantly higher MVPA than girls in physical education (47% vs. 42%, p = .045), organized parkour recess (73% vs. 65%, p = .003), and traditional recess (56% vs. 36%, p < .001). Children generated on average 22% of MVPA through performing parkour-specific skills in organized parkour recess. Conclusion: Generalization of participation from physical education classes to organized recess programs is a promising strategy to increase children’s daily MVPA.
Peter Iserbyt, Bob Madou, Lieven Vergauwen, and Daniel Behets
This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards accomplishes motor goals almost as well as a teacher-centered format in a technical sport like tennis. In addition, it is discussed that peer mediated learning settings with task cards could offer a powerful learning environment, emphasizing social as well as motor goals in physical education.
Peter Iserbyt, Hans van der Mars, Hannelore Drijvers, and Jan Seghers
Purpose: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs aim to maximize the application of skills learned in physical education (PE) in other settings. We investigated students’ generalization of participation in fitness activities from PE to organized fitness programs during lunch recess. Method: Voluntary participation of 153 (74 girls, age 12.4 years) students from five schools in a fitness recess program before, during, and after a 12-lesson sport education fitness season in PE was assessed by gender and skill level. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed through systematic observation. Results: After the sport education season, participation in fitness recess dropped from 41% to 9%, p < .001, effect size = 0.34. Average moderate to vigorous physical activity was higher in fitness (45%) compared with traditional recess (11%), p < .001, effect size = 0.50, irrespective of gender and skill level. Discussion/Conclusion: Generalization of participation in fitness activities from PE to lunch recess is a promising strategy to increase students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity.
Peter Iserbyt, Toon Dehandschutter, Hilde Leysen, and Hans van der Mars
Purpose: To investigate (a) if a coaching clinic (CC) impacted student-coaches’ behavior and academic learning time during a basketball Sport Education season and (b) if 3v3 game performance improved as a function of the coaching clinic. Method: Preservice teachers (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a CC or a comparison group and taught a 16-lesson Sport Education-based basketball season. The CC group received a coaching clinic in which student-coaches were introduced to core instructional skills, including task organization, task presentation, and delivering congruent feedback. Results: For both groups, coaching time significantly increased from 11.5% to 34.1%, p = .02, as well as cognitive learner involvement, p < .01. CC coaches provided significantly more demonstrations, p < .02. Players in the CC group had significantly greater improvement in 3v3 game play, p = .01. Conclusion: The clinic positively impacted student-coaches’ demonstrations, which likely contributed to improved 3v3 performance.
Insook Kim, Phillip Ward, Oleg Sinelnikov, Bomna Ko, Peter Iserbyt, Weidong Li, and Matthew Curtner-Smith
Purpose: We conducted a retroactive analysis of teacher and student data from two randomized group trials and one well-controlled quasi-experimental group trial focused on improving pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and student performance. Method: Seven teachers and 32 classes were investigated. PCK was measured using four variables: task selection, representation, adaption, and an aggregate variable called total PCK. Student data are reported as percentages of correct performance. Data are reported descriptively using effect sizes (ES). Results: The studies generated 35 ES across four teachers and one student performance variable. All ES exceeded the U.S. Department of Education’s What Works Clearinghouse .25 standard deviation criterion for a “substantively important” effect and all ES exceeded Cohen’s criteria of .8 for a large effect. Discussion: Findings from this study support a focus on professional development of teachers’ content knowledge as an evidenced-based practice for improving the PCK of teachers and in turn student performance.
Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, Xiuye Xie, Emi Tsuda, José A. Santiago, Peter Iserbyt, and Erhan Devrilmez
Purpose: Practice-based teacher education (PBTE) has been proposed as an approach to combat forms of teacher education that create prescriptive understandings of teaching that are disconnected from practice. In physical education, PBTE is becoming more prevalent. Some have argued that many of its elements have been in use for some time, whereas other elements have been refined or are new. In this study, we were motivated to examine the use of PBTE by physical education teacher educators and their perceptions of PBTE. Method: Participants were nine teacher educators from the United States (n = 6), Turkey (n = 2), and Belgium (n = 1). Surveys were used to gather data on the use of PBTE and the perceptions of teacher educators. Data describing the use of PBTE in their programs were descriptively analyzed. Our perceptions were interpreted using an intrinsic case study with PBTE serving as the case. Findings: Programs adopted similar and different elements of PBTE. Four themes emerged relative to the perceptions of teacher educators about PBTE: (a) how the context of the teacher educator influences their use of PBTE, (b) teacher educators’ use of PBTE, (c) the advantages of using PBTE, and (d) a critical analysis of PBTE. Conclusion: Our approach to operationalizing PBTE may help encourage useful conversations in physical education teacher education.
Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Erhan Devrilmez, Peter Iserbyt, Insook Kim, Bomna Ko, José A. Santiago, Emi Tsuda, and Xiuye Xie
Background: Teacher education is a complex endeavor designed to prepare preservice teachers for the task of teaching physical education to students in K–12 schools. Yet, there is widespread criticism of teacher education outcomes within the United States and around the world. Consequently, teacher educators have been increasingly called upon to use evidence-based approaches in teacher education. Purpose: In this article, we discuss a teacher education reform called practice-based teacher education from macro and micro perspectives. Discussion: Practice-based teacher education emphasizes a curriculum that is focused on relevance defined in terms of what a teacher needs to know and do to be able to teach physical education. Evidence for curricular changes to physical education teacher education and to the content and pedagogies of methods and content classes are presented. We conclude with a discussion of how practice-based teacher education can address social injustice.