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Robert W. Arnhold Jr. and Peter McGrain

The purpose of this study was to determine which set of selected kinematic variables affected the speed of visually impaired residential youth in the sprint run. The subjects were 27 students, 16 males and 11 females, between the ages of 9.4 and 16.4 years. Film data were collected during two trials of the 50-m dash. A Fortran computer program produced nine variables from these digitized data. A multiple regression analysis was performed on the variables using running speed as the dependent variable. Results of a correlation matrix yielded five variables with significant bivariate correlations to running speed. Results of a regression analysis indicated that the cycle length and hip joint range of motion had significant effects on running speed. Implications for an increase in sprinting speed include increasing stride length via the generation of greater hip extension during the drive phase and a greater hip flexion during the recovery phase of sprint running.

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Peter McGrain, James Van Dyke and James Mastro

This study examined the coefficients of restitution (e) of selected balls used in team sports for the visually impaired: beep baseball and goal ball. Specifically, a basketball was compared to two men's standard goal balls, and a softball was compared to three different types of beep baseballs. The e for all balls was calculated by dropping each ball five times from heights of 6 ft (1.83 m) and 19.25 ft (5.88 m). A Sony reel-to-reel videotape recorder was used to record rebound heights on a background scale for each ball dropped. Reliability tests of the procedures yielded correlation coefficients (r) of 0.996 and 0.998 for the 6 ft (1.83 m) and 19.25 ft (5.88 m) drops, respectively. Two two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests yielded significant differences across ball type and height of drop for the basketball and goal balls and for the softball and beep baseballs, respectively (p < 0.001). The es for the more recently developed beep baseballs are close to that of the standard softball, indicating a possible danger to visually impaired participants in beep baseball.