During group marches, soldiers must walk in step with one another at the same imposed cadence. The literature suggests that shorter trainees may be more susceptible to injury due to overstriding that can occur when taller recruits dictate marching cadence. This study assessed the effects of fixed cadence simulated marching at cadences above and below preferred step rate (PSR) on lower extremity joint mechanics in individuals who were unaccustomed to marching. During three separate visits, 13 volunteers walked with a 20 kg load on a force-sensing treadmill at self-selected PSR, PSR+15% (shorter strides), and PSR–15% (longer strides) at 1.3 m/s for 60 min. Two-way RM ANOVAs (cadence by time) were performed during the stance phase. Ranges of motion and anteroposterior ground reaction force increased significantly as cadence decreased (P < .03). Knee extension moment increased slightly when step rate decreased from PSR+15% (shortest strides, 0.85 ± 0.2 N m/kg) to PSR (0.87 ± 0.3 N m/kg, 3% increase); however, this increase was substantially greater (20% increase) when cadence was decreased from PSR to PSR–15% (longest strides, 1.09 ± 0.3 N m/kg). Our results indicate that overstriding during fixed-cadence marching is a factor that can substantially increase mechanical stress on lower extremity joints.
Joseph F. Seay, Peter N. Frykman, Shane G. Sauer and David J. Gutekunst
William J. Kraemer, Andrew C. Fry, Peter N. Frykman, Brian Conroy and Jay Hoffman
The use of resistance training for children has increased in popularity and interest. It appears that children are capable of voluntary strength gains. Exercise prescription in younger populations is critical and requires certain program variables to be altered from adult perspectives. Individualization is vital, as the rate of physiological maturation has an impact on the adaptations that occur. The major difference in programs for children is the use of lighter loads (i.e., > 6 RM loads). It appears that longer duration programs (i.e., 10-20 wks) are better for observing training adaptations. This may be due to the fact that it takes more exercise to stimulate adaptational mechanisms related to strength performance beyond that of normal growth rates. The risk of injury appears low during participation in a resistance training program, and this risk is minimized with proper supervision and instruction. Furthermore, with the incidence of injury in youth sports, participation in a resistance training program may provide a protective advantage in one’s preparation for sports participation.