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Martin E. Block and Philip Conatser

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the knowledge base regarding consulting in adapted physical education (APE). First, a definition and key characteristics of consulting are discussed. Second, a review of theoretical foundations and major characteristics of the two most common types of consulting models used in APE—behavior and organizational consulting—is presented. Third, the four most common roles of APE consultants—advocacy, trainer, fact finder, and process specialist—are examined. Fourth, the most common four-step consulting process (entry, diagnosis, implementation, and disengagement) is outlined and discussed. Finally, three major barriers to APE consulting—time to consult, administrative support, and attitudes and expectations of the consultee—are analyzed.

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William L. Siler and Philip E. Martin

In order to compare fast and slow runners with respect to the relative timing of the compensations they make to maintain a given running velocity during a prolonged effort, coordinate data were collected periodically for 9 fast and 10 slow volunteers performing a treadmill run to volitional exhaustion at a speed approximating their 10-km race pace. Statistically significant but small changes were noted in the average stride length, range of motion at the thigh, maximum thigh flexion, maximum knee extension, maximum knee flexion, and head-neck-trunk segment (HNT) angle at maximum thigh extension. No statistically significant differences were detected, however, with regard to the relative timing of the compensations demonstrated by the two groups. It was concluded that runners demonstrate subtle compensations in running pattern as they approach volitional exhaustion. In addition, it was concluded that the performance level of the runners as reflected by the ranges of 10-km run performance used in this investigation does not affect the relative timing of the compensations. Finally, it appears that some individuals are more sensitive to the effects of fatigue as evidenced by extreme compensations in running pattern.

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Philip E. Martin and Gary D. Heise

Archery instructors believe that force distribution (FD) between the hand and bow grip can have a considerable effect on arrow flight, but there is no empirical support for this speculation. This study examined FD on the bow grip in experienced archers and explored the possible relationships between FD, performance, and fatigue. FD was quantified for 15 experienced archers (8 highly skilled [HS] and 7 less skilled [LS]) using 15 unobtrusive force sensors as each archer completed 72 shots. Arrow position relative to the target center, estimated net moments and moment arms about vertical and horizontal axes through the grip, and shot-to-shot variability in the estimated moments and moment arms were computed for three blocks of six shots. Results demonstrated that (a) estimated moments and moment arms were not consistently related to observed vertical or horizontal deviations in arrow position, (b) there were no systematic differences in FD between HS and LS archers, (c) fatigue had no quantifiable effect on FD, and (d) HS archers displayed less shot-to-shot variability in vertical FD than LS archers, but similar variability horizontally. Results did not support the above-noted common belief of archery instructors.

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Philip E. Martin and Mark D. Grabiner

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Brian R. Umberger and Philip E. Martin

Lower extremity motions during cycling are often assumed to occur in the sagittal plane. While seemingly logical, this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Frontal plane rotation of the ankle joint (inversion/eversion) has been studied extensively during gait but infrequently during cycling despite the suggestion that excessive eversion or pronation may be related to overuse knee injuries. Two-dimensional sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics were generally found to be similar to simultaneously measured 3-D values. Despite the similarity in motion patterns, maximum hip angle was 34° more flexed in 2-D than 3-D. Maximum and minimum frontal plane ankle joint angles were similar in 2-D and 3-D. However, during the middle of the pedal cycle, 2-D frontal plane ankle joint motion deviated from 3-D, such that maximum ankle eversion was reached 36% of the pedal cycle later in 2-D versus 3-D. The discrepancy at the hip was due primarily to differences in hip angle definition for 2-D and 3-D approaches, and an alternate convention for hip angle in 2-D is suggested. Discrepancies in frontal plane ankle joint motion are due to weaknesses in the planar approach and would be difficult to overcome without resorting to 3-D measurement.

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Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin

It is unknown if higher antagonist muscle coactivation is a factor contributing to greater energy expenditure of cycling in older adults. We determined how age, power output, and cadence affect energy expenditure and lower limb antagonist muscle coactivation during submaximal cycling. Thirteen younger and 12 older male participants completed 6-min trials at four power output-cadence conditions (75 W-60 rpm, 75 W-90 rpm, 125 W-60 rpm, and 125 W-90 rpm) while electromyographic and metabolic energy consumption data were collected. Knee and ankle coactivation indices were calculated using vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior electromyography data. Energy expenditure of cycling was greater in older compared with younger participants at 125 W (p = .002) and at 90 rpm (p = .026). No age-related differences were observed in the magnitude or duration of coactivation about the knee or ankle (p > .05). Our results indicated that the knee and ankle coactivation is not a substantive factor contributing to greater energy expenditure of cycling in older adults.

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Jeremy D. Smith and Philip E. Martin

Unilateral, transtibial amputees exhibit walking asymmetries and higher metabolic costs of walking than nonamputees walking at similar speeds. Using lightweight prostheses has previously been suggested as a contributing factor to walking asymmetries. The purpose was to investigate the effects of prosthesis mass and mass distribution on metabolic costs and walking asymmetries among six unilateral, transtibial amputees. Kinematic and temporal symmetry did not improve when mass was added at different locations on the limb. Stance and swing time asymmetries increased by 3.4% and 7.2%, respectively, with loads positioned distally on the limb. Maximum knee angular velocity asymmetries increased by 6% with mass added to the thigh, whereas maximum thigh angular velocity asymmetries increased by approximately 10% with mass positioned near the prosthetic ankle. Adding 100% of the estimated mass difference between intact and prosthetic legs to the ankle of the prosthesis increased energy costs of walking by 12%; adding the same mass to the prosthesis center of mass or thigh center of mass increased metabolic cost by approximately 7% and 5%, respectively. Unless other benefits are gained by increasing prosthesis mass, this should not be considered as a possible alternative to current lightweight prosthesis designs currently being prescribed to unilateral amputees.

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Justin M. Slade, Daniel M. Landers and Philip E. Martin

Based on inflow explanations, the predictions related to EMG activity during imagery of a dumbbell and manipulandum curl were that EMG activity: (a) increases, relative to baseline, in both the biceps and triceps of the active arm; (b) is localized to muscles used in executing the real movement; and (c) mirrors the pattern of activity observed during the real movement. Based on literature which suggests that EMG activity during imagery may be due to expectancy effects, it was also hypothesized that EMG activity would be greater during imagery for those who were aware of the predictions of inflow explanations than for those who were unaware of those predictions. Undergraduate students (N = 60) completed a series of real and imagined dumbbell and manipulandum curls. For both movements, biceps and triceps EMG activity was measured in both the passive and active arms during baseline, imagery, and real movement conditions. No EMG differences were found between those who were aware or unaware of the predictions derived from inflow explanations. For both curls, average EMG biceps and triceps activity was significantly greater in the active arm during imagery than during baseline. Pattern analysis showed that the EMG activation patterns for biceps and triceps did not mirror the triphasic EMG pattern observed during the real movement. Results did not support the mirroring hypothesis (e.g., the psychoneuro-muscular theory), as the pattern of increased activation during imagery did not reflect that observed during the real movement.

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David R. Bassett, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, Lynn B. Panton, Philip E. Martin and Ann M. Swartz

Undergraduate enrollments in kinesiology have grown over the past 20 years as the popularity of this major increased among students interested in the health professions. A panel discussion at the 2018 American Kinesiology Association workshop provided an overview of challenges facing kinesiology departments. Department leaders at four public universities discussed enrollment trends, faculty resources for teaching undergraduates, and budget models used at their universities. Comparisons were made with kinesiology departments at Big Ten universities to reflect more broadly on what is happening at U.S. public research institutions. At several universities, undergraduate kinesiology enrollments grew between 2008 and 2017, but at others, they leveled off or declined. In many cases, faculty resources have not kept pace with enrollments, leading to unhealthy student-to-faculty ratios. The panel discussed methods of coping with scarce resources for teaching undergraduates and how department leaders can use comparison data to stress the importance of adequate resources.