The purpose of this study was to provide initial construct validity evidence for scores derived from the Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise (PNSE) scale, a multidimensional instrument designed to measure perceived psychological need satisfaction in line with Deci and Ryanʼs (1985, 2002) self-determination theory (SDT). Participants in two studies (n1 = 426; n2 = 581) completed the PNSE along with proxy measures of need satisfaction. The results of an exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 supported the retention of a 3-factor measurement model underpinning PNSE responses. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted in Study 2 corroborated the tenability of the 3-factor measurement model in males and females and indicated partial support for invariance of PNSE scores across gender. Additionally, the scores on both the PNSE-Competence and PNSE-Relatedness subscales displayed a pattern of convergence with proxy measures. High internal consistency estimates (Cronbach α > 0.90) were observed for all PNSE subscale scores, and participants in both studies reported high levels of need satisfaction in exercise contexts. Overall, the findings suggest that the PNSE displays a number of psychometric characteristics that render the instrument useful for examining psychological need satisfaction in exercise contexts.
Philip M. Wilson, W. Todd Rogers, Wendy M. Rodgers and T. Cameron Wild
Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall, Philip M. Wilson and Tanya R. Berry
The purpose of this research was to examine whether exercisers and nonexercisers are rated similarly on a variety of characteristics by a sample of randomly selected regular exercisers, nonexercisers who intend to exercise, and nonexercisers with no intention to exercise. Previous research by Martin Ginis et al. (2003) has demonstrated an exerciser stereotype that advantages exercisers. It is unknown, however, the extent to which an exerciser stereotype is shared by nonexercisers, particularly nonintenders. Following an item-generation procedure, a sample of 470 (n = 218 men; n = 252 women) people selected using random digit dialing responded to a questionnaire assessing the extent to which they agreed that exercisers and nonexercisers possessed 24 characteristics, such as “happy,” “fit,” “fat,” and “lazy.” The results strongly support a positive exerciser bias, with exercisers rated more favorably on 22 of the 24 items. The degree of bias was equivalent in all groups of respondents. Examination of the demographic characteristics revealed no differences among the three groups on age, work status, or child-care responsibilities, suggesting that there is a pervasive positive exerciser bias.
Marcia I. Milne, Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall and Philip M. Wilson
Across various social cognitive theories, behavioral intention is broadly argued to be the most proximal and important predictor of behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton, & Russell, 1998; Rogers, 1983). It seems probable that an intention to increase behavior might be differentially determined from an intention to maintain behavior. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) the change in two types of behavioral intention over time and (2) the relationship between intention and the social-cognitive factor mental imagery. Behavioral intention, exercise imagery, and observed exercise behavior was measured in 68 exercise initiates participating in a 12-week exercise program. Results revealed that behavioral intention to increase exercise behavior decreased over the exercise program, whereas intentions to maintain exercise behavior increased. Appearance and technique imagery were found to be significant predictors of intention to increase behavior during the first 6 weeks of the program, and only appearance imagery predicted intention to maintain exercise behavior during the last 6 weeks. These findings suggest that the two types of behavioral intention are distinguishable and may be useful targets for exercise behavior interventions.
Diane E. Mack, Philip M. Wilson, Virginia Lightheart, Kristin Oster and Katie E. Gunnell
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the frequency and type of self-reported physical activity behavior in postsecondary students with reference to Healthy Campus 2010 objectives. The secondary purpose was to explore the role of information provision in terms of promoting physical activity behavior in postsecondary students.
Postsecondary students were assessed (N = 127360). Employing a trend survey design, the frequency and type of physical activity behavior was assessed along with physical activity/fitness information provision across a five year period between 2000 to 2004.
In 2004, respondents meeting Healthy Campus 2010 objectives for self-reported moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 42.20% (95% CI = 41.75 to 42.65) and 48.60% (95% CI = 48.14 to 49.06) for strength (STRENGTH) training behavior. Progress quotients demonstrated that 12.93% and 7.87% of target objective for MVPA and STRENGTH respectively had been achieved from baseline. Those who received information reported engaging in more frequent physical activity behavior compared with those who did not (P < .001).
Results suggest the need for continued commitment to increasing physical activity behavior. The provision of physical activity/fitness information may be one mechanism through which this can be achieved.
Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Kent C. Kowalski, Philip M. Wilson, Diane E. Mack and Peter R. E. Crocker
The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R 2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.