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Martin D. Hoffman, Philip S. Clifford, and Frank Bender

This investigation examined the adjustments made in cycle rate and length to velocity changes during roller skiing with the double pole (DP), kick double pole (KD), and VI skate (VS) techniques. Eight cross-country ski racers roller skied with each technique on a flat track at submaximal and maximal velocities while being videotaped from a lateral view. Increases in submaximal velocities were associated with increases in cycle rate and cycle length for KD and VS but only with increases in cycle rate for DP. Maximal sprint velocities were approximately 7% lower (p < .01) for KD than for DP and VS and were associated with increases (p < .01) in cycle rate for each technique combined with decreases (p < .01) in cycle length for DP and VS. The findings indicate that there are differences among techniques in the manner in which cycle rate and length are adjusted to change submaximal velocity, but each technique relies upon an increase in cycle rate to achieve maximal velocity.

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Martin D. Hoffman, Philip S. Clifford, Božo Bota, Michael Mandli, and Gregory M. Jones

A theoretical analysis was used to evaluate the effect of body mass on the mechanical power cost of cross-country skiing and roller skiing on flat terrain. The relationships between body mass and the power cost of overcoming friction were found to be different between cross-country skiing on snow and roller skiing. Nevertheless, it was predicted that the heavier skier should have a lower oxygen cost per unit of body mass for roller skiing, as is the case for snow skiing. To determine whether the theoretical analysis was supported by experimental data, oxygen consumption measurements were performed during roller skiing by six male cross-country ski racers who spanned a 17.3-kg range in body mass. The theoretical analysis was supported by the experimental findings of decreases in oxygen consumption for each kg increase in body mass of approximately 1.0% for the double pole technique, 1.8% for the kick double pole technique, and 0.6% for the VI skate technique.