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Phillip Ward

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Phillip Ward

Recruiting, teacher preparation, and acquiring teaching jobs can be viewed as a pipeline. The function of the pipeline is to provide competent and qualified physical education teachers to teach in our nation’s schools. On the exit end of the pipeline, jobs for physical education teachers are plentiful. At the entry level to the pipeline, the situation is problematic because there is a decline in the number of students entering many physical education teacher education programs. This decline, documented in some cases and reported anecdotally in others, has occurred across the United States, with the exception of some states such as Texas and Alabama. The personal, practical, and policy implications of declining admissions have yet to be played out in their entirety. In this paper, the author discusses the pipeline, its policy pressure points, and responses to the pressure points designed to address declining admission.

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Phillip Ward

Purpose: To identify and define a set of core practices for physical education teacher education (PETE), to situate these practices within existing conceptions of core practices in other subject matters, and to validate the core practices using expert opinion and the evidence-based pedagogy literature. Method: A total of 45 PETE teacher educators, consisting of 22 research experts and 23 faculty members, were purposely selected to establish a consensus on core practices. The procedures draw upon guidelines from evaluation and program planning, medicine, nursing, and health education. Data were collected over e-mail. Results: From an initial set of 18 core practices, 16 practices were further developed and refined by the experts. These 16 practices were further validated by seeking evidence from the physical education literature and by using meta-analytic effect sizes. Discussion/Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as an invitation to the field to improve the authors’ teacher education efforts.

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Phillip Ward and Tim Barrett

This article provides an overview of behavior analysis, reviewing its history and the experimental research conducted in physical education settings. Articles were selected from five journals by looking through each issue to identify those that used a single-subject design to assess the effects of behavioral interventions in P–12 or teacher preparation settings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized according to their focus: (a) preservice or inservice teacher behavior; (b) student learning; (c) class management; or (d) student learning specifically focused on students with disabilities in adapted or inclusive settings. The review describes the scope of the behavioral interventions and examines the research designs used. A methodological critique suggests that while findings have been robust and the designs used were typically rigorous, researchers have not assessed generality, maintenance, or social validity as well as they might. The article closes with recommendations for reviewers and authors.

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Phillip Ward and Bomna Ko

We examined publication trends in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE) in terms of total representation as well as trends by decade of the (a) sex and country of affiliation of editors, (b) sex and country of affiliation of editorial board members, (c) sex and country of affiliation of first authors, (d) types of manuscripts published, and (e) foci of those manuscripts. Overall results suggest that female scholars have achieved parity in terms in editorships and editorial memberships on the JTPE board. In terms of international representation, whereas the editorships remain predominately in the hands of those from the United States, there is an increasing international representation on the editorial board. The majority of submissions come from the United States, with just under one-sixth coming from other countries. In terms of the focus and type of manuscript published, results show a diverse range, thus reflecting a nonpartisan journal defined by problems and settings, rather than methodology or ideology.

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Melissa Johnson and Phillip Ward

Traditional approaches to instruction in physical education have focused on the teacher to provide feedback and assess student learning. In contrast, classwide peer tutoring in physical education (CWPT-PE) uses peers to help provide feedback and assessment. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess the effects of CWPT-PE on (a) number of total trials, (b) number and percentage of correct trials, and (c) teacher’s organization of lesson time. Also assessed was the extent to which students could accurately discriminate each other’s performance. Participants were 11 children in third grade who participated in a 20-lesson striking unit. Results show that during the intervention the children performed fewer total trials, generally more correct trials, and had a higher percentage of correct trials than during baseline. Moreover, the CWPT-PE intervention was similarly effective for lower and higher skilled girls. The teacher’s organization of lesson time remained mostly unaffected by the intervention. Finally, students accurately determined each other’s performance more than 90% of the time.