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Core Practices for Teaching Physical Education: Recommendations for Teacher Education

Phillip Ward

Purpose: To identify and define a set of core practices for physical education teacher education (PETE), to situate these practices within existing conceptions of core practices in other subject matters, and to validate the core practices using expert opinion and the evidence-based pedagogy literature. Method: A total of 45 PETE teacher educators, consisting of 22 research experts and 23 faculty members, were purposely selected to establish a consensus on core practices. The procedures draw upon guidelines from evaluation and program planning, medicine, nursing, and health education. Data were collected over e-mail. Results: From an initial set of 18 core practices, 16 practices were further developed and refined by the experts. These 16 practices were further validated by seeking evidence from the physical education literature and by using meta-analytic effect sizes. Discussion/Conclusion: The results of this study can be used as an invitation to the field to improve the authors’ teacher education efforts.

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Chapter 2: The Teacher Pipeline for PETE: Context, Pressure Points, and Responses

Phillip Ward

Recruiting, teacher preparation, and acquiring teaching jobs can be viewed as a pipeline. The function of the pipeline is to provide competent and qualified physical education teachers to teach in our nation’s schools. On the exit end of the pipeline, jobs for physical education teachers are plentiful. At the entry level to the pipeline, the situation is problematic because there is a decline in the number of students entering many physical education teacher education programs. This decline, documented in some cases and reported anecdotally in others, has occurred across the United States, with the exception of some states such as Texas and Alabama. The personal, practical, and policy implications of declining admissions have yet to be played out in their entirety. In this paper, the author discusses the pipeline, its policy pressure points, and responses to the pressure points designed to address declining admission.

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Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Saber-Tooth Project

Phillip Ward

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Chapter 3: Design of the Saber-Tooth Project

Phillip Ward

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Positive Behavior Management in Physical Activity Settings, With Web Resources (3rd ed.)

Phillip Ward

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Changes in the Content Development and Adaptive Competence of Teachers Following a Specialized Content Knowledge Workshop

Insook Kim and Phillip Ward

Purpose: This study examined the effects of a specialized content knowledge workshop on developing teachers’ content development and adaptive competence in teaching badminton. Method: A quasi-experimental design was employed with three middle school physical education teachers who taught five or six badminton lessons before and after the content knowledge workshop (n = 66). Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis of variance were conducted to analyze the data of content development index scores and intratask adaptations. Frequency data across lessons by teachers and treatment conditions were employed for content development patterns. Results: There were statistically significant effects of the workshop in developing the teachers’ use of content development (p = .049) and adaptations (p = .000), but their effects varied by teacher. While the most used content development pattern by the teachers in comparison classes was an informing applying pattern, the teachers used a variety of content development patterns that included more task progressions in the experimental classes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that teachers’ instructional tasks and task adaptations could be improved through a well-designed professional development program. The findings can guide the direction of teacher education and professional development in ways to enhance teachers’ content development and adaptations.

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A Review of Behavior Analysis Research in Physical Education

Phillip Ward and Tim Barrett

This article provides an overview of behavior analysis, reviewing its history and the experimental research conducted in physical education settings. Articles were selected from five journals by looking through each issue to identify those that used a single-subject design to assess the effects of behavioral interventions in P–12 or teacher preparation settings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized according to their focus: (a) preservice or inservice teacher behavior; (b) student learning; (c) class management; or (d) student learning specifically focused on students with disabilities in adapted or inclusive settings. The review describes the scope of the behavioral interventions and examines the research designs used. A methodological critique suggests that while findings have been robust and the designs used were typically rigorous, researchers have not assessed generality, maintenance, or social validity as well as they might. The article closes with recommendations for reviewers and authors.

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Publication Trends in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1981 to 2005

Phillip Ward and Bomna Ko

We examined publication trends in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE) in terms of total representation as well as trends by decade of the (a) sex and country of affiliation of editors, (b) sex and country of affiliation of editorial board members, (c) sex and country of affiliation of first authors, (d) types of manuscripts published, and (e) foci of those manuscripts. Overall results suggest that female scholars have achieved parity in terms in editorships and editorial memberships on the JTPE board. In terms of international representation, whereas the editorships remain predominately in the hands of those from the United States, there is an increasing international representation on the editorial board. The majority of submissions come from the United States, with just under one-sixth coming from other countries. In terms of the focus and type of manuscript published, results show a diverse range, thus reflecting a nonpartisan journal defined by problems and settings, rather than methodology or ideology.

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Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Conceptions and Findings in Physical Education

Phillip Ward and Shiri Ayvazo

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a frequently used concept in the educational community. Its usage is so widespread it appears to function as a “lingua franca” across different subject areas and among researchers within a subject area. Critiques of PCK have suggested it may function at best as a heuristic and at worst as a masquerade; because there has been little consensus on its conceptualization and in many studies there is no operational definition of PCK provided. Recent studies, however, have moved both the conceptualization and measurement of PCK forward in ways that allow the concept to be operationalized. In this article we examine how PCK has evolved since Shulman’s (1986) initial conceptualization, and discuss how the concept has been used in physical education. We describe and examine five recurring research findings for PCK in physical education. These are that PCK can be described on continuums of maturity and effectiveness; is learned, is specific to content and context; and is strongly related to both content knowledge and knowledge of students.

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Chapter 2: Toward a Consolidation of the Knowledge Base for Reform in Physical Education

Phillip Ward and Panayiotis Doutis