Recruiting, teacher preparation, and acquiring teaching jobs can be viewed as a pipeline. The function of the pipeline is to provide competent and qualified physical education teachers to teach in our nation’s schools. On the exit end of the pipeline, jobs for physical education teachers are plentiful. At the entry level to the pipeline, the situation is problematic because there is a decline in the number of students entering many physical education teacher education programs. This decline, documented in some cases and reported anecdotally in others, has occurred across the United States, with the exception of some states such as Texas and Alabama. The personal, practical, and policy implications of declining admissions have yet to be played out in their entirety. In this paper, the author discusses the pipeline, its policy pressure points, and responses to the pressure points designed to address declining admission.
Phillip Ward and Shiri Ayvazo
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a frequently used concept in the educational community. Its usage is so widespread it appears to function as a “lingua franca” across different subject areas and among researchers within a subject area. Critiques of PCK have suggested it may function at best as a heuristic and at worst as a masquerade; because there has been little consensus on its conceptualization and in many studies there is no operational definition of PCK provided. Recent studies, however, have moved both the conceptualization and measurement of PCK forward in ways that allow the concept to be operationalized. In this article we examine how PCK has evolved since Shulman’s (1986) initial conceptualization, and discuss how the concept has been used in physical education. We describe and examine five recurring research findings for PCK in physical education. These are that PCK can be described on continuums of maturity and effectiveness; is learned, is specific to content and context; and is strongly related to both content knowledge and knowledge of students.
Melissa Johnson and Phillip Ward
Traditional approaches to instruction in physical education have focused on the teacher to provide feedback and assess student learning. In contrast, classwide peer tutoring in physical education (CWPT-PE) uses peers to help provide feedback and assessment. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess the effects of CWPT-PE on (a) number of total trials, (b) number and percentage of correct trials, and (c) teacher’s organization of lesson time. Also assessed was the extent to which students could accurately discriminate each other’s performance. Participants were 11 children in third grade who participated in a 20-lesson striking unit. Results show that during the intervention the children performed fewer total trials, generally more correct trials, and had a higher percentage of correct trials than during baseline. Moreover, the CWPT-PE intervention was similarly effective for lower and higher skilled girls. The teacher’s organization of lesson time remained mostly unaffected by the intervention. Finally, students accurately determined each other’s performance more than 90% of the time.
Phillip Ward and Tim Barrett
This article provides an overview of behavior analysis, reviewing its history and the experimental research conducted in physical education settings. Articles were selected from five journals by looking through each issue to identify those that used a single-subject design to assess the effects of behavioral interventions in P–12 or teacher preparation settings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized according to their focus: (a) preservice or inservice teacher behavior; (b) student learning; (c) class management; or (d) student learning specifically focused on students with disabilities in adapted or inclusive settings. The review describes the scope of the behavioral interventions and examines the research designs used. A methodological critique suggests that while findings have been robust and the designs used were typically rigorous, researchers have not assessed generality, maintenance, or social validity as well as they might. The article closes with recommendations for reviewers and authors.
Phillip Ward and Bomna Ko
We examined publication trends in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE) in terms of total representation as well as trends by decade of the (a) sex and country of affiliation of editors, (b) sex and country of affiliation of editorial board members, (c) sex and country of affiliation of first authors, (d) types of manuscripts published, and (e) foci of those manuscripts. Overall results suggest that female scholars have achieved parity in terms in editorships and editorial memberships on the JTPE board. In terms of international representation, whereas the editorships remain predominately in the hands of those from the United States, there is an increasing international representation on the editorial board. The majority of submissions come from the United States, with just under one-sixth coming from other countries. In terms of the focus and type of manuscript published, results show a diverse range, thus reflecting a nonpartisan journal defined by problems and settings, rather than methodology or ideology.