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Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Kemper Han, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Martin Stevens

Several items of the Groningen Fitness Test for the Elderly (GFE) were tested. The GFE tests were administered twice, with 1 week between sessions. The participants were 458 independently living adults >55 years of age. For most tests, there was reasonable agreement between sessions, indicating absolute objectivity and stability, but results on the block-transfer test revealed a learning effect. Mean scores on the balance-board and sit-and-reach tests showed significant improvement, whereas grip-strength results deteriorated significantly. All tests satisfied the criteria for relative reliability. In conclusion, absolute and relative reliability of the tests of the GFE were satisfactory. If multiple applications of the GFE are planned for the same group of participants, 1 or more practice trials should be executed for the block-transfer test to avoid a learning effect. A standard warm-up protocol is recommended for the sit-and-reach test. Participants should be strongly encouraged to give a maximum effort on the strength tests.

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Johan de Jong, Martin Stevens, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Theo Mulder


The Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) was developed to stimulate physical activity in sedentary and underactive older adults. The GALM physical activity program was primarily based on an evolutionary–biological play theory and insights from social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study was to assess the intensity of the GALM program.


Data from 15 GALM sessions were obtained by means of heart rate monitors.


Data of 97 program participants (mean age: 60.1 y) were analyzed. The overall mean intensity for the GALM program was 73.7% of the predicted heart rate maximum and 6% of the monitored heart rate time could be classified as light, 33% as moderate and 61% as hard.


The GALM program met the intensity guidelines to increase cardiorespiratory fitness. The intensity and attractiveness of this physical activity program make it an interesting alternative for stimulating physical activity in sedentary and underactive older adults.

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Gerrie Schäperclaus, Mathieu de Greef, Piet Rispens, Danielle de Calonne, Martin Landsman, Kong I. Lie and Jan Oudhof

An experimental study was carried out to determine the influence of participation in Sports Groups for Patients with Cardiac Problems (SPCP) on physical and mental fitness and on risk factor level after myocardial infarction. SPCP members (n = 74; 67 men and 7 women) were compared with Nonsporting Patients with Cardiac Problems (NPCP, n = 60; 52 men and 8 women). Patients were a random sample from two hospitals in the Netherlands. In comparison with NPCP, the SPCP group showed a greater maximum oxygen uptake, a higher degree of perceived well-being, and a lower risk factor level. After correction for differences in cardiac and personal characteristics, SPCP yielded an independent significant multivariate effect on maximum oxygen uptake, perceived well-being, and risk factor level. Therefore, the application and integration of SPCP in cardiac rehabilitation should be further investigated.

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Martin Stevens, Anita Bakker-van Dijk, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink and Piet Rispens

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Dutch translation of a questionnaire to measure self-efficacy in leisure-time physical activity. The questionnaire consisted of three subscales measuring three dimensions of self-efficacy. It was completed by 461 participants, 55–65 years old. Fifty-nine participants took part in a test-retest study. Factor analysis and correlations between the sum-scores of the 3 scales confirmed that each scale measures a different dimension of self-efficacy. The criterion-related validity of 2 of the scales was found to be moderate. All 3 scales had a satisfactory internal consistency, indicating that they are reliable. Stability was assessed with a test-retest procedure, which yielded satisfactory results for 2 of the 3 scales. The results revealed an improvement in self-efficacy for 2 of the scales over a 4-week time period. When outliers were excluded, satisfactory values were obtained for intraclass correlation coefficients between the first and second measurements.

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Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Han C.G. Kemper, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Martin Stevens

This article focuses on the validity of the circumduction test for measuring shoulder flexibility in older adults. Participants included 137 community-dwelling older adults. Equipment consisted of a cord with a fixed handle on one end and a sliding handle on the other. The sliding handle was adjusted so that the cord length between the 2 handles equaled the participant’s shoulder width. Holding the 2 handles, the participant must pass the cord from the front of the body over the head and as far back as possible with extended arms. The score is the fanning-out angle. Forward flexion, abduction, horizontal retroflexion, and outward rotation were also measured. The test and criterion measurements were administered within 1 wk. The criterion-related validity of the circumduction test as a measure of forward flexion and horizontal retroflexion received support from moderate correlations. Its use as a measure of abduction and outward rotation, however, received no support from the data.