Purpose: To investigate the differences in the pattern of changes in serum inflammatory cytokines measured annually over a 24-month period, between less active and more active overweight boys. Participants/Methods: In total, 25 pubertal overweight boys were divided by their moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels into 2 groups: less active group (LAG; n = 10; MVPA < 60 min/d) and more active group (MAG; n = 15; MVPA > 60 min/d). Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Serum concentration of 13 inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, IL-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, epidermal growth factor, and C-reactive protein] was measured at baseline (T0), after 12 months (T1), and after 24 months (T2) from fasting blood samples. Results: Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher [LAG: 1.27 (0.86, 1.98) pg/mL; MAG: 0.80 (0.52, 0.84) pg/mL] at T0 and IL-8 level [LAG: 10.26 (8.80, 11.64) pg/mL; MAG: 7.42 (6.10, 9.54) pg/mL] at T2 in LAG compared with MAG. The changes over the study period varied between different inflammatory markers. None of the slopes of any measured markers were statistically different between the LAG and MAG, although the slopes of interferon-γ and IL-10 tended to be different between the groups. Conclusions: The pattern of changes over the study period varied between different inflammatory markers, but these changes were not different between the MVPA groups. More longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and interferon-γ would be the choice of inflammatory markers to study the associations between obesity and physical activity in future.
Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe
Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.
Jaak Jürimäe, Kaja Haljaste, Antonio Cicchella, Evelin Lätt, Priit Purge, Aire Leppik and Toivo Jürimäe
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the energy cost of swimming, body composition, and technical parameters on swimming performance in young swimmers. Twenty-nine swimmers, 15 prepubertal (11.9 ± 0.3 years; Tanner Stages 1−2) and 14 pubertal (14.3 ± 1.4 years; Tanner Stages 3−4) boys participated in the study. The energy cost of swimming (Cs) and stroking parameters were assessed over maximal 400-m front-crawl swimming in a 25m swimming pool. The backward extrapolation technique was used to evaluate peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). A stroke index (SI; m2 · s−1 · cycles−1) was calculated by multiplying the swimming speed by the stroke length. VO2peak results were compared with VO2peak test in the laboratory (bicycle, 2.86 ± 0.74 L/min, vs. in water, 2.53 ± 0.50 L/min; R2 = .713; p = .0001). Stepwise-regression analyses revealed that SI (R2 = .898), in-water VO2peak (R2 = .358), and arm span (R2 = .454) were the best predictors of swimming performance. The backward-extrapolation method could be used to assess VO2peak in young swimmers. SI, arm span, and VO2peak appear to be the major determinants of front-crawl swimming performance in young swimmers.