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Nutritional Ergogenic Aids: Canitine

Priscilla M. Clarkson

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Nutritional Ergogenic Aids: Chromium, Exercise, and Muscle Mass

Priscilla M. Clarkson

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“Or at Least, to Do No Harm” —Hippocrates

Edited by Priscilla M. Clarkson

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The Reader's Responsibility

Edited by Priscilla M. Clarkson

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The Hunter and Gatherer as Athlete

Edited by Priscilla M. Clarkson

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Excellence in the Face of Adversity

Edited by Priscilla M. Clarkson

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The Elusive Cramp

Priscilla M. Clarkson

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Nutritional Ergogenic Aids: Caffeine

Priscilla M. Clarkson

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Changing of the Guard

Edited by Priscilla M. Clarkson

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Trace Mineral Requirements for Athletes

Priscilla M. Clarkson and Emily M. Haymes

This paper reviews information pertaining to zinc, copper, chromium, and selenium requirements of athletes. Exercise increases zinc loss from the body, and dietary intake for some athletes, especially females, may be inadequate. Blood copper levels are altered by exercise, but there is no information to suggest that copper ingestion or status is compromised in athletes. Studies have shown that urinary chromium excretion is increased by exercise, but whether this leads to an increased requirement is still unknown. There is concern that athletes may not ingest sufficient quantities of chromium; however, there are inadequate data to confirm this. The limited data that exist show that athletes do not have altered selenium status. There is no conclusive evidence that supplementation with any of these trace minerals will enhance performance. A diet containing foods rich in micronutrients is recommended. However, for those athletes concerned that their diets may not be sufficient, a multivitamin/ mineral supplement containing no more than the RDA may be advised.