To examine the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and the combined effect of glutamine supplementation and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) on the function of neutrophils induced by overtraining.
Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overtraining group (E), DPI-administration group (D), glutamine-supplementation group (G), and combined DPI and glutamine group (DG). Blood was sampled from the orbital vein after rats were trained on treadmill for 11 wk. Cytokine and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The colocalization between gp91phox and p47phox of the NADPH oxidase was detected using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. The activity of NADPH oxidase was assessed by chemiluminescence. Neutrophils’ respiratory burst and phagocytosis function were measured by flow cytometry.
NADPH oxidase was activated by overtraining. Cytokine and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma and the activity of NADPH oxidase were markedly increased in Group E compared with Group C. Neutrophil function was lower in Group E than Group C. Both lower neutrophils function and higher ROS production were reversed in Group DG. The glutamine and DPI interference alone in Group D and Group G was less effective than DPI and glutamine combined in group DG.
Activation of NADPH oxidase is responsible for the production of superoxide anions, which leads to excessive ROS and is related to the decrease in neutrophil function induced by overtraining. The combined DPI administration and glutamine supplementation reversed the decreased neutrophil function after overtraining.