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Rafaela Costa Martins, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Renata Moraes Bielemann and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

To evaluate the 1-year stability of objectively measured physical activity among young adults living in South Brazil, as well as assessing the influences of temperature, humidity and precipitation on physical activity.

Methods:

A longitudinal study was conducted over 12 consecutive months (October 2012 to September 2013). Sixteen participants (8 men) used GT3X+ accelerometers 1 week per month for the entire year. Climate variables were obtained from an official climate information provider.

Results:

Physical activity was remarkably stable over the year—the proportion of the day spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was around 5% in every month. Average temperature (ρ = –0.64; P = .007), humidity (ρ = –0.68; P = .004) and rain (ρ = –0.67; P = .004) were inversely correlated to MVPA in the Summer. Rain was also inversely correlated to MVPA in the Spring (ρ = –0.54; P = .03).

Conclusions:

Objectively measured physical activity was stable over a 1-year period. Climate variables consistently influenced physical activity practice in the Summer, but not in the other seasons.

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Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, Kenneth Powell, I-Min Lee, Adrian Bauman, Gregory Heath, Rafaela Costa Martins, Harold Kohl and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide.

Methods:

Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information’s accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories.

Results:

Of the 139 countries, 90.6% reported having completed 1 or more PA survey, but less than one-third had 3 or more. 106 included PA on a national plan, but only one-quarter of these were PA-specific. At least 1 peer reviewed publication was identified for 63.3% of the countries. Positive associations (P < .001) were found between research and policy (ρ = 0.35), research and surveillance (ρ = 0.41), and surveillance and policy (ρ = 0.31). Countries with a standalone plan were more likely to have surveillance. Countries with more research were more likely to have a standalone plan and surveillance.

Conclusions:

Surveillance, policy, and research indicators were positively correlated, suggesting that action at multiple levels tends to stimulate progress in other areas. Efforts to expand PA-related surveillance, policy, and research in lower income countries are needed.

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Rafaela Costa Martins, Luiza Isnardi Cardoso Ricardo, Gerfeson Mendonça, Daiana Lopes de Rosa, Letícia Lemos Ayres da Gama Bastos, Carolina de Vargas Nunes Coll and Renata Moraes Bielemann

Objective: To evaluate trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior simultaneity among Brazilian students from 2009 to 2015 and its association with independent variables. Methods: This study presents a panel of 3 cross-sectional studies carried out in 2009, 2012, and 2015 (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar—PeNSE). The population was comprised of ninth-grade public and private schools students from Brazilian capitals. Physical activity and sedentary behavior variables were combined to create the outcome of simultaneity of these risk factors. Results: A large proportion of students were simultaneously inactive and sedentary in the 3 surveys. However, it was possible to observe a downward trend (2009: 56.4%; 95% confidence interval, 55.7–57.1; 2012: 53.7%; 95% confidence interval, 53.0–54.4; 2015: 51.9%; 95% confidence interval, 51.2–52.7). In 2015, estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior simultaneity were greater than 48% for 20 out of 27 of the Brazilian states. Significant declining trends were observed among mideast residents, females, nonwhite, and those attending private schools. Only around 5%–7% of the adolescents were both active and nonsedentary in the 3 surveys. Conclusion: Despite of a slight decreasing trend in the proportion of Brazilian students simultaneously inactive and sedentary throughout the period, the prevalence remained elevated across the surveys.