There were three aims to the present study: (a) to test a social cognitive model based on self-efficacy and intention in predicting compliance to exercise in a Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program; (b) to examine temporal patterns of self-efficacy in an 18-week exercise CR program; and (c) to ascertain whether the social-cognitive variables act more as determinant or consequence of exercise behavior during the program. Forty-one participants (29 M, 12 F; mean age 63 ± 9 .81 yrs) with documented ischemic heart disease enrolled in an 18-week supervised walking-based Phase 2 CR exercise program. They completed scales assessing self-efficacy and intention at the beginning of the program (Time 1) and again at Weeks 7 (Time 2) and 13 (Time 3). Compliance behavior was assessed through daily attendance and exercise energy expenditure measures, via metabolic equivalents (ACSM Guidelines, 1995). Data provide general support for the social cognitive model. That is, positive and meaningful relationships were found among self-efficacy, intention, and objectively measured exercise behavior, explaining 16 to 59% of the variance. Results also showed that both task and barrier efficacy significantly improved during the early part of the exercise program and then leveled off during program termination. Finally, results suggest that social-cognitive variables act more as a determinant than a consequence of exercise behavior. The findings underscore the need for scale congruence between the measures of self-efficacy, intention, and objective measures of exercise behavior.
Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis
Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis
The purpose of this study was to examine whether variables in the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) acted more as predictors than as consequences of exercise behavior (stage of change). Students from 13 New Zealand high schools (N = 1,434) completed questionnaires corresponding to variables in the TTM (i.e., stage of exercise change, processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance) at two time periods separated by 6 months. Reciprocal relationships were found between exercise behavior and the TTM variables. The TTM might be a useful framework for understanding longitudinal exercise behavior in the adolescent population.
Louise Foley and Ralph Maddison
There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.
Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis
Two interrelated studies examined the role psychological factors play in the prediction and prevention of sport related injury. Study 1 involved 470 rugby players who completed measures corresponding to variables in the revised Williams and Andersen (1998) stress and injury model at the beginning of the 2001 playing season. Prospective and objective data were obtained for both the number of injuries and the time missed. Results showed that social support, the type of coping, and previous injury interacted in a conjunctive fashion to maximize the relationship between life stress and injury. Study 2 examined the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention in reducing injury among athletes from Study 1 who were identified as having an at-risk psychological profile for injury. Forty-eight players were randomly assigned to either a CBSM intervention or a no-contact control condition. Participants completed psychological measures of coping and competitive anxiety at the beginning and end of the 2002 rugby season. The assessment of injury was identical to that used in Study 1. Results showed that those in the intervention condition reported missing less time due to injury compared to their nonintervention counterparts. The intervention group also had an increase in coping resources and a decrease in worry following the program. Taken together, both studies underscore the importance of (a) psychosocial factors in identifying those athletes most vulnerable to injury and (b) cognitive behavioral stress management programs in reducing the vulnerability to injury.
Harry Prapavessis, Ralph Maddison and Richard Fletcher
The purpose of the present study was to provide further evidence for the factor structure and composition of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) using a sample of competitive male rugby players (N = 570). Three models were tested using both confirmatory factor analytic and polyto-mous item-response theory procedures: Smith et al’s original model; Dunn et al.’s (2000) alternative model in which Items 14 and 20 were originally designed to measure Concentration Disruption load on the Worry factor (Model A); and Model B (the removal of Item 1). Results showed that Models A and B provided similar fits to the data. Overall these findings argue for the utilization of Model B to improve model fit and maintain conceptual clarity. Our findings suggest that the factor structure and composition of the SAS needs further examination and possible refinement before researchers can feel more confident about the effectiveness of the instrument’s psychometric properties.
Casey Jordan Mace, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds and Ngaire Kerse
The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) is a computerized recall instrument that records use of time during 24 hr the previous day and has been developed to address limitations of current self-report physical activity measures for those in advanced age.
Test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the adult MARCA were assessed in a sample of 45 advanced-age adults (age 84.9 SD ± 1.62 yr) as a subsample of the Life and Living in Advanced-Age Cohort Study New Zealand (LiLACS NZ). Test–retest methods required participants to recall the previous day’s activity using the MARCA twice within the same day. Convergent validity was assessed against accelerometry.
Test–retest reliability was high, with ICCs greater than .99 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity level (PAL). Compared with accelerometry, the MARCA demonstrated validity comparable to other self-report instruments with Spearman’s coefficients of .34 and .59 for time spent in nonsedentary physical activity and PAL.
The MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report tool for physical activity behaviors in advanced-age adults.
Vaughan Roberts, Ralph Maddison, Jane Magnusson and Harry Prapavessis
The current study tested the utility of an integrated social cognitive model to predict physical activity (PA) intentions and behavior in New Zealand adolescents.
Seventy-two adolescents (mean age = 16.92, SD = 0.66) completed measures consistent with the integrated model (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control [PBC], goal intention, task-efficacy, barrier efficacy, and implementation intention). Pedometer data (Yamax SW200 pedometer) were collected for 7 days, and a self-report 7-day recall questionnaire was administered at the end of this week. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the contribution of the model to PA goal intention, implementation intention, self-reported and objective PA.
The integrated model accounted for 41% of goal intention, 33% of implementation intention, and 41% and 18% of subjectively and objectively measured PA, respectively. PBC had the strongest association with goal intention whereas attitude had the strongest association with implementation intention. Task-efficacy made the greatest contribution to objectively measured PA, whereas implementation intention had the strongest association with subjectively measured PA.
These findings have implications regarding PA measurement in adolescent populations, and suggest that social cognitive variables play an important role in adolescent PA. Recommendations for future research are discussed.
Ralph Maddison, Yannan Jiang, Stephen Vander Hoorn, Daniel Exeter, Cliona Ni Mhurchu and Enid Dorey
This study aimed to describe the location and intensity of free-living physical activity in New Zealand adolescents during weekdays and weekend days using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), accelerometry, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Participants (n = 79) aged 12–17 years (M = 14.5, SD 1.6) recruited from two large metropolitan high schools each wore a GPS watch and an accelerometer for four consecutive days. GPS and accelerometer data were integrated with GIS software to map the main locations of each participant’s episodes of moderate-vigorous physical activity. On average participants performed 74 (SD 36) minutes of moderate and 7.5 (SD 8) minutes of vigorous activity per day, which on weekdays was most likely to occur within a 1 km radius of their school or 150 meters of their home environment. On weekends physical activity patterns were more disparate and took place outside of the home environment. Example maps were generated to display the location of moderate to vigorous activity for weekdays and weekends.
Ralph Maddison, Yannan Jiang, Steve Vander Hoorn, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Daniel Exeter and Jennifer Utter
Research in adults shows poor agreement between self-reported and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources; however there is little such research in adolescents. This study assessed the level of agreement between self-reported and objective measures of distance to physical activity resources in adolescents; and whether perceived or actual distance was related to actual use and physical activity levels.
110 New Zealand high school students (12−18 years) were asked the time (in minutes) it would take them to walk from their home to the nearest physical activity resource, and whether they had used it in the previous month. The distance from participants’ homes to the nearest resource was measured using GIS. Physical activity was assessed with accelerometers.
Agreement was poor, with weighted Kappa Indices ranging from 0.1 to 0.4. The facilities used most frequently were schools (90%), public parks (76%), and playing fields (74%). Closer location was associated with higher use of some facilities only. Moderate-to-vigorous activity levels were not associated with self-reported or measured distance.
Agreement between perceived and measured access is poor among adolescents. Further research is needed to understand how individual and social factors interact with environmental factors and whether improving awareness improves use.
Nerissa Campbell, Harry Prapavessis, Casey Gray, Erin McGowan, Elaine Rush and Ralph Maddison
Background/Objective: This study investigated the validity of the Actiheart device for estimating free-living physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in adolescents. Subjects/Methods: Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in eighteen Canadian adolescents, aged 15–18 years, by DLW. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as 0.9 X TEE minus resting energy expenditure, assuming 10% for the thermic effect of feeding. Participants wore the chest mounted Actiheart device which records simultaneously minute-by-minute acceleration (ACC) and heart rate (HR). Using both children and adult branched equation modeling, derived from laboratory-based activity, PAEE was estimated from the ACC and HR data. Linear regression analyses examined the association between PAEE derived from the Actiheart and DLW method where DLW PAEE served as the dependent variable. Measurement of agreement between the two methods was analyzed using the Bland-Altman procedure. Results: A nonsignificant association was found between the children derived Actiheart and DLW PAEE values (R = .23, R 2 = .05, p = .36); whereas a significant association was found between the adult derived Actiheart and DLW PAEE values (R = .53, R 2 = .29, p < .05). Both the children and adult equation models lead to overestimations of PAEE by the Actiheart compared with the DLW method, by a mean difference of 31.42 kcal·kg−·d−1 (95% limits of agreement: −45.70 to −17.15 kcal·kg−1·d−1 and 9.80 kcal·kg−1·d−1 (95% limits of agreement: −21.22-1.72 kcal·kg−1·d−1), respectively. Conclusion: There is relatively poor measurement of agreement between the Actiheart and DLW for assessing free-living PAEE in adolescents. Future work should develop group based branched equation models specifically for adolescents to improve the utility of the device in this population.