Alpine touring (AT) equipment is designed for ascending mountains and snow skiing down backcountry terrain. Skiers have been observed using AT boots in alpine (not made for Alpine Touring) ski bindings. We tested the effect on the retention-release characteristics of AT boots used in alpine bindings. Ten AT ski boots and 5 alpine ski boots were tested in 8 models of alpine ski bindings using an ASTM F504-05 (2012) apparatus. Thirty-one percent of the AT boots released appropriately when used in alpine ski bindings. One alpine binding released appropriately for all alpine and AT boots tested; 2 alpine ski bindings did not release appropriately for any AT boots. Altering the visual indicator settings on the bindings (that control the release torque of an alpine system) had little or no effect on the release torque when using AT boots in alpine ski bindings. Many combinations released appropriately in ski shop tests, but did not release appropriately in the more complex loading cases that simulated forward and backward falls; the simple tests performed by ski shops could produce a “false-negative” test result. These results indicate that using AT boots with alpine ski bindings could increase the likelihood of lower leg injuries.
Jeffrey R. Campbell, Irving S. Scher, David Carpenter, Bruce L. Jahnke and Randal P. Ching
Michael C. Dahl, Dheera Ananthakrishnan, Gregg Nicandri, Jens R. Chapman and Randal P. Ching
Football, one of the country’s most popular team sports, is associated with the largest overall number of sports-related, catastrophic, cervical spine injuries in the United States (Mueller, 2007). Patient handling can be hindered by the protective sports equipment worn by the athlete. Improper stabilization of these patients can exacerbate neurologic injury. Because of the lack of consensus on the best method for equipment removal, a study was performed comparing three techniques: full body levitation, upper torso tilt, and log roll. These techniques were performed on an intact and lesioned cervical spine cadaveric model simulating conditions in the emergency department. The levitation technique was found to produce motion in the anterior and right lateral directions. The tilt technique resulted in motions in the posterior left lateral directions, and the log roll technique generated motions in the right lateral direction and had the largest amount of increased instability when comparing the intact and lesioned specimen. These findings suggest that each method of equipment removal displays unique weaknesses that the practitioner should take into account, possibly on a patient-by-patient basis.