Purpose: To investigate the effects of a low- versus high-intensity aerobic training on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with obesity. Methods: Sixty-two adolescents with obesity [age = 15 (14) y, body mass index = 34.87 (4.22) kg·m−2] were randomized to receive either a high-intensity training (HIT, n = 31) or a low-intensity training (LIT, n = 31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Leptin, total and subtype leukocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were obtained at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results: HIT reduced neutrophils [from 4.4 (1.9) to 3.6 (1.3) µL−1 × 103; P = .01] and monocytes [from 7.2 (2.5) to 5.2 (1.8) µL−1 × 102; P < .01], but LIT increased neutrophils [from 4.5 (1.7) to 5.2 (3.3) µL−1 × 103; P = .01]. Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased in LIT [from 13.3 (7.5) to 17.7 (10.8) pg·mL−1; P = .01], it decreased in HIT [from 12.4 (7.5) to 11.3 (6.2) pg·mL−1; P = .01]. No changes in leukocyte counts, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance were observed. Conclusions: Both HIT and LIT improved the inflammatory profile. The study, however, indicated that the number of biomarkers and the magnitude of changes were higher in the HIT compared with LIT.
Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado
Adilson Santos Andrade de Sousa, Marilia A. Correia, Breno Quintella Farah, Glauco Saes, Antônio Eduardo Zerati, Pedro Puech-Leao, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel G. Cucato and Raphael M. Ritti-Dias
This cross-sectional study compared physical activity levels and barriers between 212 men and women with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. Physical activity was objectively measured by an accelerometer. Barriers to physical activity were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Women reported higher amounts of light physical activity (p < .001) and lower moderate–vigorous physical activity (p < .001) than men. Women more often reported barriers such as “not having anyone to accompany” (p = .006), “lack of money” (p = .018), “fear of falling or worsening the disease” (p = .010), “lack of security” (p = .015), “not having places to sit when feeling leg pain” (p = .021), and “difficulty in getting to a place to practice physical activity” (p = .015). In conclusion, women with symptomatic peripheral artery disease presented with lower amounts of moderate–vigorous activity and more barriers to activity than men. Strategies to minimize the barriers, including group actives and nonpainful exercises, are recommended for women with peripheral artery disease.