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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

Context: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) often presents with a dysfunction in deep abdominal muscles activity during standing tasks. Although some studies indicated that deep abdominal muscle activity improved during some functional tasks following stabilization exercise (SE), there is no study to evaluate the effect of SE on lateral abdominal muscles thickness during standing postural tasks. Objective: The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the lateral abdominal muscles thickness in the participants with CLBP while standing on a balance board and (2) to compare the effects of SE and a general exercise (GE) program on the lateral muscles thickness changes. Methods: This was a between-groups, triple-blinded randomized controlled trial design. In total, 40 females with CLBP were randomly assigned into 2 groups:  GE (control group) and supervised progressive SE (experimental group). Diagnostic ultrasound imaging was used before and after the intervention to measure lateral abdominal muscles thickness during standing on 2 different levels of platform in the Biodex Balance System. Visual analog scale and Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire were used to evaluate changes in pain intensity and disability. Results: The results indicated significant increases in transverse abdominis muscle thickness during all standing tasks (P = .02) and significant decreases in pain intensity and disability following SE intervention (P < .001). However, the lateral abdominal muscle thicknesses were not changed after GE intervention while standing postural tasks (P > .05). The GE group revealed only significant decreases in pain intensity after intervention (P = .03). Conclusion: Supervised progressive SE improved the activity of deep abdominal muscles in standing postural tasks in the patients with CLBP.

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

Context: Clinical evaluation of the spine is commonplace in musculoskeletal therapies, such as physiotherapy, physical medicine/rehabilitation, osteopathic, and chiropractic clinics. Sit-to-stand (STS) is one of the most mechanically demanding daily activities and crucial to independence. Difficulty or inability to perform STS is common in individuals with a variety of motor disabilities, such as low back pain (LBP). Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate available evidence in literature to determine 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional kinematics of the spine during STS in patients with LBP and healthy young adult participants using motion analysis systems (electromagnetic and marker based). Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE [National Library of Medicine], Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) were searched between January 2002 and February 2017. Additionally, the reference lists of the articles that met the inclusion criteria were also searched. Prospective studies published in peer-reviewed journals, with full text available in English, investigating the kinematics of the spine during STS in healthy subjects (mean age between 18 and 50 y) or in patients with LBP using motion analysis systems, were included. Sixteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. All information relating to methodology and kinematic modeling of the spine segments along with the outcome measures was extracted from the studies identified for synthesis. Results: The results indicated that the kinematics of the spine are greatly changed in patients with LBP. In order to develop a better understanding of spine kinematics, studies recommended that the trunk should be analyzed as a multisegment. It has been shown that there is no difference between the kinematics of patients with LBP and healthy population when the spine is analyzed as a single segment. Furthermore, between-gender differences are present during STS movement. Conclusion: This review provided a valuable summary of the research to date examining the kinematics of the spine during STS.