Teachers’ self-efficacy is a critical predictor for successful inclusive physical education. However, little is known about preservice physical educators’ self-efficacy toward teaching students with autism spectrum disorders in China. A sound instrument is necessary to measure their self-efficacy level. This validation study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Physical Educators’ Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities—Autism. A multisection survey form was administered to preservice physical educators in Mainland China (n = 205) and Hong Kong (n = 227). The results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor model of the scale in the total sample and each of the two samples. Invariance tests across the two samples supported configural and metric invariance but not scalar invariance. The scale scores showed good internal reliability and were correlated with theoretically relevant constructs (i.e., burnout and life satisfaction) in the total sample and subsamples. These findings generally support the utility of the scale for use among Chinese preservice physical educators.
Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Yandan Wu
Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Chung Wah Yu
Teachers’ attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are vital predictors of successful inclusive education. Guided by the basic psychological needs theory, this cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the relationships among mindfulness, basic psychological needs satisfaction (basic psychological needs theory-based construct), and attitudes toward including students with ASD among preservice physical education (PE) teachers. A multisection survey form was administered to 211 preservice PE teachers. Path analysis indicated that mindfulness and basic psychological needs satisfaction positively predicted attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through basic psychological needs satisfaction. The findings provide a preliminary direction for the development of a mindfulness-based intervention program for enhancing preservice PE teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. The findings also suggest that the basic psychological needs theory is a useful framework for understanding the relationship between mindfulness and attitudes. Future longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to examine whether the findings can be replicated.