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Rebecca Davies, Dave Smith, and Kevan Collier

This study examined the presence and experience of muscle dysmorphia among current and former steroid-using recreational bodybuilders. The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory was given to 60 male participants, with 9 of these being interviewed to examine the predisposing factors, characteristics, and negative consequences of muscle dysmorphia comprising Lantz, Rhea, and Mayhew’s (2001) conceptual model. Quantitative results from the MDI data showed no significant differences between current and former steroid users in their experiences of muscle dysmorphia. In contrast, interviews suggested that former users appeared to be more susceptible to some of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia, including physique protection and body distortion/dissatisfaction, which suggests perhaps a limitation in the amount of information that can be extracted from a questionnaire. These preliminary findings also raise concerns about the lack of a diagnostic tool available for the condition and are discussed in relation to Lantz et al.’s (2001) conceptual model.

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Rebecca A. Abbott, Doune Macdonald, Smita Nambiar, and Peter S.W. Davies

Objective measurement of daily steps was used to assess whether children (n = 2,076) in Years 1, 5 and 10 who reported walking to or from school were more active and more likely to reach recommended step targets than those who were driven or took public transport to school. Walking to school was associated with higher school-day steps in older children (16,238 vs 15,275 for Year 5 male p < .05, 13,521 vs 12,502 for Year 5 female p < .01, 12,109 vs 11,373 for Year 10 female p < .05). The proportion of children who met recommended step thresholds was higher in those who walked to school compared with those who took motorized transport, and this was significant for Year 5 females (71.7% vs 54.5%, p < .01). This study suggests that walking to school for older children has potential to contribute significantly to daily activity levels and increases the likelihood of attaining recommended step targets. These data should encourage public policy and those concerned with the built environment to provide and support opportunities for walking to school.

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Rebecca M. Dagger, Ian G. Davies, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Genevieve L. Stone, Keith P. George, Stuart J. Fairclough, and Lynne M. Boddy

Purpose: To assess the effects of the Children’s Health, Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention on body size, body composition, and peak oxygen uptake in a subsample of 10- to 11-year-old children. Methods: Sixty children were recruited from 12 schools (N = 6 intervention) to take part in the CHANGE! subsample study. Baseline, postintervention, and follow-up measures were completed in October 2010, March–April 2011, and June–July 2011, respectively. Outcome measures were body mass index z score, waist circumference, body composition assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (baseline and follow-up only), and peak oxygen uptake. Results: Significant differences in mean trunk fat mass (control = 4.72 kg, intervention = 3.11 kg, P = .041) and trunk fat % (control = 23.08%, intervention = 17.75%, P = .022) between groups were observed at follow-up. Significant differences in waist circumference change scores from baseline to follow-up were observed between groups (control = 1.3 cm, intervention = −0.2 cm, P = .023). Favorable changes in body composition were observed in the intervention group; however, none of these changes reached statistical significance. No significant differences in peak oxygen uptake were observed. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest the multicomponent curriculum intervention had small to medium beneficial effects on body size and composition health outcomes.