Despite what many claim, just because there is teaching does not mean there is learning. Clear and convincing evidence supports changing the instructional paradigm to a learner-centered classroom. Flipping a class shifts the delivery, often through technologically presented lectures, to free class time for student participation in a plethora of learning activities, such as think-pair-share and discussions, leading to student perceptions of greater learning and more enjoyment. In an action research approach with one class, 72% of juniors and seniors in an undergraduate sport finance and economics class reported out-of-class lectures often positively impacted their learning, and the remaining 28% responded these lectures did sometimes. End-of-course evaluations and surveys were overwhelmingly positive about class engagement, interaction, and enjoyment.
Angela Lumpkin and Rebecca M. Achen
Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen
Women represent the fastest growing demographic for the fantasy sports industry, making up approximately 38% of fantasy football participants. To help understand this growth, this study was an attempt to explore why women play fantasy football. Themes and statements derived from qualitative data collected through open-ended survey responses and face-to-face interviews were tested on two samples of female fantasy football participants. In all, 450 unique individuals were studied, and five distinct motive factors were uncovered: Challenge, Enjoy, Enhance, Socialize, and Connect. The first three dimensions mirror the motives of male participants, and the other two are unique to women. While the factors were correlated, the results provide evidence that the factors impact different outcomes associated with the activity.
Liz A. Sattler, Clint Warren and Rebecca M. Achen
Major League Soccer (MLS) has announced intentions to expand the league from 24 to 28 teams by 2022, with hints of further expansion to come. Expansion will allow the league to capitalize on the growing ticket and merchandise sales in new markets. League officials have 3 major considerations when choosing a city for expansion, which include a committed local ownership group with a passion for soccer and sufficient resources, a desirable geographic market with a history for supporting soccer and other sporting events, and a comprehensive stadium plan. Twelve cities across the country have submitted bids for expansion teams. Given the proposed bids, MLS needs to review the cities to determine which markets provide the highest likelihood of financial prosperity. As bid groups prepare their proposals for the committee, they will need to conduct a market-demand analysis. Each city will then be evaluated based on how well it meets the 3 criteria outlined by MLS, as well its ability to garner financial success.
Rebecca M. Achen, John Kaczorowski, Trisha Horsmann and Alanda Ketzler
Research on social-media use in sport should be expanded to include analyses of content popularity and comparisons across leagues. This study used content analysis and a multivariate multilevel model to compare content type and interaction across U.S. professional sport leagues. Results indicated that teams in the National Football League had the most comments, teams in the Major League Baseball had the most shares, and teams in the National Basketball Association had the most likes. Content coded as player and personnel promotion, which included behind-the-scenes content and human-interest stories, received the most interaction. Sport marketers can use this information to drive content strategy. However, content designed to encourage interaction is still posted less often than most other types of content. These results suggest that marketers in sport may be using Facebook to build relationships by connecting fans personally with players, but not by encouraging interaction or 2-way conversation.