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Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide

Rebecca R. Bryan

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The Ambiguous Role of the Paraeducator in the General Physical Education Environment

Rebecca R. Bryan, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, and Hans van der Mars

The use of paraeducators has increased as a main mechanism to include more students with disabilities in the public schools in the U.S. Although the utilization of paraeducators is intended to be a supportive service delivery option, many concerns and challenges have resulted. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment from the perspectives of special education, physical education, and adapted physical education teachers and paraeducators. Data were collected from a phenomenological approach using questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Results indicate concerns about the clarity of the role of the paraeducator in physical education. Emerging themes include elastic definitions of student protection and teacher backup, contradictory expectations and mixed acceptance, and paraeducators’ role ambiguity. Findings regarding the role of the paraeducator are essential in determining both best practice and legal policy for the appropriate utilization of paraeducators in physical education.

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Accuracy of Pedometer Steps and Time for Youth with Disabilities

Michael W. Beets, Cindy Combs, Kenneth H. Pitetti, Melinda Morgan, Rebecca R. Bryan, and John T. Foley

The purpose of the study was to examine the accuracy of pedometer steps and activity time (Walk4Life, WL) for youth with developmental disabilities. Eighteen youth (11 girls, 7 boys) 4-14 years completed six 80-meter self-paced walking trials while wearing a pedometer at five waist locations (front right, front left, back right, back left, middle back). Trials were video taped to determine actual steps and activity time. Time exhibited a smaller percent error in comparison to steps across locations. Apart from the front left, location had minimal influence on accuracy. The WL demonstrates acceptable accuracy for steps and activity time.