Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author: Renee N. Appaneal x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Megan D. Granquist, Diane L. Gill, and Renee N. Appaneal

Context:

Rehabilitation adherence is accepted as a critical component for attaining optimal outcomes. Poor adherence is recognized as a problem in the athletic training setting. Measurement has been inconsistent, and no measure has been developed for athletic training settings.

Objective:

To identify indicators of sportinjury rehabilitation adherence relevant to athletic training and develop a Rehabilitation Adherence Measure for Athletic Training (RAdMAT) based on these indicators.

Design:

Mixed methods, 3 steps.

Setting:

College athletic training facility.

Participants:

Practicing certified athletic trainers (ATCs; n = 7) generated items, experts (n = 12) reviewed them, and practicing ATCs (n = 164) completed the RAdMAT for their most, average, and least adherent athlete.

Main Outcome Measure:

RAdMAT.

Results:

The RAdMAT is 16 items with 3 subscales. Subscales and total have good internal consistency and clearly discriminate among adherence levels.

Conclusions:

The RAdMAT is based on scholarly literature and clinical practice, making it particularly appropriate for use in athletic training clinical practice or for research purposes.

Restricted access

Shona L. Halson, Renee N. Appaneal, Marijke Welvaert, Nirav Maniar, and Michael K. Drew

Purpose: Psychological stress is reported to be an important contributor to reduced sleep quality and quantity observed in elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between psychological stress and sleep and to identify if specific aspects of sleep are disturbed. Methods: One hundred thirty-one elite athletes (mean [SD], male: n = 46, age 25.8 [4.1] y; female: n = 85, age 24.3 [3.9] y) from a range of sports completed a series of questionnaires in a 1-month period approximately 4 months before the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. Questionnaires included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Recovery-Stress Questionnaire; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS 21); and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: Regression analysis identified the PSS and DASS stress as the main variables associated with sleep. A PSS score of 6.5 or higher was associated with poor sleep. In addition, a PSS score lower than 6.5 combined with a DASS stress score higher than 4.5 was also associated with poor sleep. Univariate analyses on subcomponents of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index confirmed that PSS is associated with lower sleep quality (t99 = 2.40, P = .018), increased sleep disturbances (t99 = 3.37, P = .001), and increased daytime dysfunction (t99 = 2.93, P = .004). DASS stress was associated with increased sleep latency (t94 = 2.73, P = .008), increased sleep disturbances (t94 = 2.25, P = .027), and increased daytime dysfunction (t94 = 3.58, P = .001). Conclusions: A higher stress state and higher perceived stress were associated with poorer sleep, in particular increased sleep disturbances and increased daytime dysfunction. Data suggest that relatively low levels of psychological stress are associated with poor sleep in elite athletes.