The current study investigated the association between vitamin-D-receptor (VDR) genotypes with bone-mineral density (BMD) and its interaction with physical activity level (PAL). Individuals in a sample of 192 volunteers (67.84 ± 5.23 years) underwent BMD evaluation and were genotyped for VDR ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms. Haplotypes were reconstructed through expectation-maximization algorithm, and regression-based haplotype-specific association tests were performed with studied phenotypes. None of the polymorphisms were associated with BMD at any site; however, haplotype was associated with femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD. Interaction between PAL and VDR genotypes was significant for the FokI polymorphism at femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD. The FokI T/T genotype was associated with higher BMD in active women. It was concluded that VDR haplotypes, but not genotypes, are associated with femoral-neck and Ward’s-triangle BMD in post-menopausal women. Moreover, the results suggest that VDR FokI polymorphism might be a potential determinant of BMD response to physical activity.
Paulo Gentil, Tulio Cesar de Lima Lins, Ricardo Moreno Lima, Breno Silva de Abreu, Dario Grattapaglia, Martim Bottaro, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira and Rinaldo Wellerson Pereira
Poliana Alves de Oliveira, Juscelino Castro Blasczyk, Gerson Souza Junior, Karina Ferreira Lagoa, Milene Soares, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Wagner Rodrigues Martins
Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults.
A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality.
From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength.
ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.