Background: To assess the joint and stratified associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), incidence, and mortality from cancer in never, former, and current male smokers. Methods: CRF (treadmill exercise test) was assessed in 4694 men (never smokers [n = 1715]; former smokers [n = 1602], 32.4 [30.5] pack-years; and current smokers [n = 1377], 40.3  pack-years) aged 58.1 (17.3) years, and prospectively followed for 12.7 (7.5) years. Multivariable Cox hazard models were analyzed. Results: In joint analyses, where high CRF in never smokers was used as a reference, hazard ratios and 95% (confidence intervals) for cancer incidence and cancer mortality were as follows: moderate CRF 1.41 (1.0–1.9) and 3.0 (1.7–5.5) in never smokers, 1.65 (1.3–2.2) and 3.7 (2.1–6.6) in former smokers, and 1.3 (0.9–1.7) and 3.4 (1.9–6.1) in current smokers, respectively. The corresponding values for low CRF were 1.53 (1.1–2.2) and 5.1 (2.7–9.5), 1.84 (1.3–2.5) and 6.6 (3.7–11.8), and 1.5 (1.1–2.2) and 5 (2.7–9.3), respectively. In stratified analyses by smoking status, compared with low CRF, moderate and high CRF were associated with a 32% to 78% reduction in cancer mortality risk (P trend for all <.001). Conclusion: Higher CRF is associated with lower risk of incidence and mortality from cancer regardless of smoking status, supporting the potential preventive benefits for public health.
Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima and Jonathan Myers
Paula R. Mesquita, Silvia G.R. Neri, Ricardo M. Lima, Eliane F. Manfio and Ana C. de David
Although previous reports have provided normative plantar pressure data for walking in children, evaluation during running is lacking. This study aimed to compare foot loading patterns during running and walking in children aged 4–10 years. Furthermore, the relationship between running baropodometric parameters and anthropometric measures was investigated. Foot loading of 120 volunteers was evaluated during running and walking using an Emed AT-4 pressure platform. Analyses were performed for 5 anatomical regions (rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot, hallux, and lesser toes). Higher peak pressure and maximum force values were seen under most foot regions during running in comparison with walking, whereas relative contact area tended to increase only in the midfoot. Data for running indicated that aging explained less than 23% of the variance of plantar loads and contact area. Running foot loads were more associated with height, body mass, and foot length. This study’s data described plantar loads under the feet of children were greater during running. Aging was associated with little increase in running plantar loads and larger contact areas. Results may be useful as reference to characterize foot loading during running and in the development of orthoses in clinical applications or products such as sport shoes for children.
Filipe M. Clemente, Ana F. Silva, Cain C.T. Clark, Daniele Conte, João Ribeiro, Bruno Mendes and Ricardo Lima
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to (1) analyze the variations of acute and chronic training load and well-being measures during 3 periods of the season (early, mid, and end) and (2) test the associations between weekly training load and well-being measures during different periods of the season. Methods: Thirteen professional volleyball players from a team competing in the Portuguese Volleyball First Division (age 31.0 [5.0] y) were monitored during an entire season. Weekly acute (wAL) and chronic load (wCL), acute to chronic workload ratio (wACWL), and training monotony (wTM) were calculated during all weeks of the season. The weekly values of muscle soreness (wDOMS), stress (wStress), fatigue (wFatigue), sleep (wSleep), and Hooper index (wHI) were also obtained across the season. Results: The midseason had meaningfully low values of wAL (−26.9%; effect size [ES]: −1.12) and wCL (−28.0%; ES: −2.81), and greater values of wACWL (+38.9%; ES: 2.81) compared with early season. The wCL (+10.6%; ES: 0.99), wStress (44.6%; ES: 0.87), and wHI (29.0%; ES: 0.62) were meaningfully greater during the end of season than in midseason. Overall, wAL presented very large correlations with wDOMS (r = .80), wSleep (r = .72), and wFatigue (r = .82). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the load was meaningfully higher during early season; however, stress was higher during the final stages of the season. Overall, it was also found that the acute load is more highly correlated with well-being status and its variations than chronic load or training monotony.
Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima
Increased plantar pressure has been found to be related with greater risk of falling. Although there is evidence suggesting that obesity is linked to foot disorders, the association between obesity and plantar pressure of older adults has been poorly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between obesity and plantar pressure distribution and to explore its relationship with body fat distribution. Two hundred and eleven older women took part in this cross-sectional study. Body mass index was taken for obesity classification. Whole body, android, and gynoid fat percentage was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Peak plantar pressure was evaluated during gait using an Emed AT-4 pressure platform. Obese volunteers generated greater peak pressure at midfoot (187.26 kPa) compared to both normal weight (128.52 kPa, p < .001) and overweight (165.74 kPa, p < .001). Peak plantar pressure at midfoot was also greater in overweight compared to normal weight (p < .001). At forefoot, peak pressure was higher in the obese (498.15 kPa) compared to normal weight volunteers (420.41 kPa, p = .007). Additionally, whole body, android, and gynoid fat percentage were significantly associated with peak pressure at midfoot and forefoot. Therefore, clinicians dealing with falls should consider the effect of increased body weight on plantar pressure.