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The Standard Model of Talent Development and Its Discontents

Richard Bailey and David Collins

Despite evident differences between approaches to talent development, many share a set of common characteristics and presumptions. We call this the Standard Model of Talent Development (SMTD). This model is articulated and the relevant literature drawn out to highlight the model's strengths and weaknesses. The SMTD has been enormously influential, in terms of both policy documentation and practice, and it retains an obvious common sense appeal. However, we will argue that not only is its attractiveness illusionary and inconsistent to the emerging evidence base from research, but it is also undesirable from a variety of perspectives and desired outcomes. In short, we suggest that the most common system for identifying talent is unsubstantiated from both a process and an outcome perspective.

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Physical Activity: An Underestimated Investment in Human Capital?

Richard Bailey, Charles Hillman, Shawn Arent, and Albert Petitpas

Despite the fact that physical activity is universally acknowledged to be an important part of healthy functioning and well-being, the full scope of its value is rarely appreciated. This article introduces a novel framework for understanding the relationships between physical activity (and specifically sport-related forms of physical activity) and different aspects of human development. It proposes that the outcomes of physical activity can be framed as differential ‘capitals’ that represent investments in domain-specific assets: Emotional, Financial, Individual, Intellectual, Physical, and Social. These investments, especially when made early in the life course, can yield significant rewards, both at that time and for years to come. The paper presents a new model—the Human Capital Model—that makes sense of these effects, outlines the different capitals, and briefly articulates the conditions necessary for the realization of Human Capital growth through physical activity.

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Physical Activity as an Investment in Personal and Social Change: The Human Capital Model

Richard Bailey, Charles Hillman, Shawn Arent, and Albert Petitpas

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Activity Levels, Dietary Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Children Who Walk to School

Paul Ford, Richard Bailey, Damian Coleman, Kate Woolf-May, and Ian Swaine

Although differences in daily activity levels have been assessed in cross-sectional walk-to-school studies, no one has assessed differences in body composition and dietary energy intake at the same time. In this study of 239 primary school children, there were no significant differences in daily activity levels, body composition, or estimated dietary energy intake between those who walk to school (WALK) and those who travel by car (CAR; p < .05). WALK children were more active between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. than CAR children (p < .05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the main analysis when participants were subgrouped by gender and age.

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What Is Physical Literacy? An International Review and Analysis of Definitions

Richard Bailey, Iva Glibo, Katrin Koenen, and Nadia Samsudin

The concept of physical literacy has entered policy, advocacy, and practice discourses in many countries and has become a significant focus of physical education, physical activity, and sport promotion. Despite its popularity, questions remain about the coherence of the definitions used and their impact on the capacity of physical literacy to act as a unifying and empowering idea. This contributes to efforts to understand and critically analyze definitional issues by systematically reviewing and analyzing patterns of use. The analysis identified 14 themes, organized into four meta-themes: physical, psychosocial, cognitive, and integrated development. The most common theme among the identified codes was movement skills, which related to developing motor competence and specific skills. The article discusses the diversity of themes and their implications for future research and practice in physical literacy. It challenges the common claim that progress depends on reaching a universal definition as the basis of collaborative work.

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Energy Expenditure and Perceived Effort During Brisk Walking and Running in 8- to 10-Year-Old Children

Paul Ford, Richard Bailey, Damian Coleman, Daniel Stretch, Edward Winter, Kate Woolf-May, and Ian Swaine

There are no previous reports of energy expenditure and perceived effort during brisk-walking and running at speeds self-selected by young children. Fifty four participants (age 8–11 years old) performed 1500 m of brisk-walking and running in a marked school playground, and were given simple instructions to either ‘walk quickly’ or to ‘jog’. During the running the children achieved higher mean speeds and a greater total energy expenditure (p < .001). However, there was no difference in the perceived effort between the two activities (p > .05). These findings suggest that under certain conditions children find it just as easy to run as they do to walk briskly, even though the speed and energy expenditure is significantly higher.

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Mock Trial: Transforming Curriculum Through Coopetition

Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, James O. Evans, Richard L. Bailey, and Shea M. Brgoch

Coopetition is a strategic concept that integrates elements of competition and cooperation. This strategy focuses on creating an environment where working together develops additional value for all entities involved, but there is still competition for this newly established value. Mock trial is an experiential learning technique that can serve as a platform to implement coopetitive strategies, providing students the opportunity to cooperatively apply theory to practice in a competitive courtroom simulation. This extended abstract details implementation of coopetition through mock trial for the sport management classroom. Implications for enhancing the coopetitive environment through course format, mentorship, and facilitation are also discussed.

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Implementation and Evaluation of Mock Trial Within Undergraduate Sport Law Curriculum

Makena R. Lynch, Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Shea M. Brgoch, James O. Evans, Richard L. Bailey, Mark Beattie, Moetiz Samad, and Ashley Ryder

Mock trials serve as useful experiential learning tools for undergraduate kinesiology students. In the current study, Kolb’s experiential learning cycle was employed over the course of a semester through a comprehensive mock trial project that aimed to provide undergraduate students with an interactive learning experience as a means to achieve desired learning outcomes. The primary purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate the mock trial as a learning tool. The researchers conducted a total of 32 semistructured focus groups with 175 students. Overall, students expressed positive experiences and outcomes as a result of engaging in the mock trial project. Four distinct themes emerged from the data: learning mechanisms, learning outcomes, the student learning experience, and suggested improvements for future courses. Each of these themes is substantiated by excerpts from the comments of the students who participated in the focus groups and discussed in detail, as well as implications for instructors who wish to similarly implement mock trials into their classrooms.