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Louise M. Burke, David B. Pyne and Richard D. Telford

Oral supplementation with creatine monohydrate (Cr.H20) has been reported to increase muscle creatine phosphate levels. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of such supplementation on performance of a single-effort sprint by elite swimmers. Thirty-two elite swimmers (M = 18, F = 14; age = 17-25 years) from the Australian Institute of Sport were tested on two occasions, 1 week apart. Tests performed were 25-m, 50-m, and 100-m maximal effort sprints (electronically timed with dive start, swimmers performing their best stroke), each with approximately 10 min active recovery. A 10-s maximal leg ergometry test was also undertaken. Swimmers were divided into two groups matched for sex, stroke/event, and sprint time over 50 m, and groups were randomly assigned to 5 days of Cr.H20 supplementation (4 · day−1 x 5 g Cr.H20 + 2 g sucrose, n = 16) or placebo (4 · day−1 x 5 g Poly cose + -2 g sucrose, n = 16) prior to the second trial. Results revealed no significant differences between the group means for sprint times or between 10-s maximal leg ergometry power and work. This study does not support the hypothesis that creatine supplementation enhances single-effort sprint ability of elite swimmers.

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Richard D. Telford, Ross B. Cunningham, Rohan M. Telford and Walter P. Abhayaratna

Relationships of academic achievement (government tests) with physical fitness (multistage run), physical activity (pedometers) and percent body fat (dual emission X-ray absorptiometry) were examined at both the aggregate school level and the individual child level using data collected from 757 children in 29 elementary schools. Statistical adjustments included gender, grade and socioeconomic status. Between-school relationships of the academic scores with fitness and physical activity were strong and positive, with some evidence of (negative) relationships with percent body fat. The between-child relationships were weaker, and nonexistent with percent body fat. Stronger between-school than between-child relationships favor the argument that variation in school cultures, characterized by concurrent attention to fitness and academic achievement, might play a more dominant role in explaining these relationships than any direct effect of fitness on academic achievement.

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Richard D. Telford, Edward A. Catchpole, Vicki Deakin, Alan C. McLeay and Ashley W. Plank

Blood indicators of eight vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E, A, B,12 folate) and six minerals (Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca, P, Al) were measured in 86 athletes before and after a 7- to 8-month period of training. During this period half consumed a multivitamin/mineral supplement and a matched group look a placebo, Following the supplementation period, Mood biochemical indicators of B1, B6, Bl2, and folate status all increased but there were no significant effects of supplementation on B2, C, E, and A, or on the blood levels of any of the minerals. The supplementation had no effect on red or while cell counts or on hemoglobin levels. Irrespective of the supplementation, some blood measures varied according to sex, females evidencing significantly higher values than males for vitamins C, E, copper, magnesium, and aluminum, with B2 being higher in males. It is concluded that 7 to 8 months of multivitamin/mineral supplementation increased the blood nutritional status of some vitamins but did not affect any blood mineral levels, and that some blood nutritional indicators may vary according to sex.

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Richard D. Telford, Edward A. Catchpole, Vicki Deakin, Allan G. Hahn and Ashley W. Plank

The effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation was studied over 7 to 8 months of training and competition in 82 athletes from four sports: basketball, gymnastics, rowing, and swimming. Matched subgroups were formed and a double-blind design used, with subgroups being given either the supplementation or a placebo. All athletes were monitored to ensure that the recommended daily intakes (RDI) of vitamins and minerals were provided by diet alone. Sport-specific and some common tests of strength as well as aerobic and anaerobic fitness were performed. Coaches' assessment of improvement was also obtained. The only significant effect of supplementation was observed in the female basketball players, in which the supplementation was associated with increased body weight, skinfold sum, and jumping ability. A significant increase in skinfold sum was also demonstrated over the whole group as a result of supplementation. In general, however, this study provided little evidence of any effect of supplementation to athletic performance for athletes consuming the dietary RDIs.

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Louise M. Burke, Clare Wood, David B. Pyne, Richard D. Telford and Philo U. Saunders

Eighteen highly-trained runners ran two half marathons in mild environmental conditions, 3 wk apart, consuming either 426 ± 227 mL of a flavored placebo drink (PLACEBO) or an equivalent volume of water (386 ± 185 mL) and a commercial gel (GEL) supplying 1.1 ± 0.2 g/kg body mass (BM) carbohydrate (CHO). Voluntary consumption of this fluid was associated with a mean BM change of ~ 2.4%. Runners performed better in their second race by 0.9% or 40 s (P = 0.03). Three runners complained of gastrointestinal discomfort in GEL trial, which produced a clear impairment of half-marathon performance by 2.4% or 105 s (P = 0.03 ) . The effect of GEL on performance was trivial: time was improved b y 0.3% or 14 s compared with PLACEBO (P = 0.52). Consuming the gel was associated with a 2.4% slower time through the 2 × 200 m feed zone; adding a trivial ~ 2 s to race time. Although benefits to half marathon performance were not detected, the theoretical improvement during 1-h exercise with CHO intake merits further investigation.

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Philo U. Saunders, Richard D. Telford, David B. Pyne, Christopher J. Gore and Allan G. Hahn

We quantified the effect of an extended live high-train low (LHTL) simulated altitude exposure followed by a series of training camps at natural moderate altitude on competitive performance in seven elite middle-distance runners (Vo2max 71.4 ± 3.4 mL·min−1·kg−1, mean ± SD). Runners spent 44 ± 7 nights (mean ± SD) at a simulated altitude of 2846 ± 32 m, and a further 4 X 7- to 10-d training at natural moderate altitude (1700–2200 m) before racing. The combination of simulated LHTL and natural altitude training improved competitive performance by 1.9% (90% confidence limits, 1.3-2.5%). Middle-distance runners can confidently use a combination of simulated and natural altitude to stimulate adaptations responsible for improving performance.

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Richard D. Telford, Christopher J. Bunney, Edward A. Catchpole, Wendy R. Catchpole, Vicki Deakin, Bon Gray, Allan G. Hahn and Deborah A. Kerr

This investigation aimed to determine whether the physical work capacity of nonanemic athletes could be improved when plasma ferritin concentrations of below 30 nglml were raised at least 15 ng/ml. The experimental group consisted of 15 training athletes, each of whose plasma ferritin concentration was less than 30 ng/ml (mean and SD of 19.8 ±8.4 nglml). In a control group of 16, each was measured with a plasma ferritin concentration of more than 40 ng/ml (mean and SD of 83.3 ±37.6 ngfml). All participated in submaximal and maximal tests for aerobic and anaerobic power. Following iron supplementation, plasma fenitin concentration in each experimental subject increased by at least 15 nglml to more than 30 ng/ml, to a new mean of 46.3 ±15.5 ng/ml. The performance measures were also repeated, but no significant overall effects were associated with the increased plasma ferritin concentrations. These data provide no sound evidence that physical work capacity of athletes is enhanced when plasma ferritin concentrations of around 20 ng/ml are increased by at least 15 ng/ml.

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Richard J. Keegan, Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright and John R. Evans

Purpose: The development of a physical literacy definition and standards framework suitable for implementation in Australia. Method: Modified Delphi methodology. Results: Consensus was established on four defining statements: Core—Physical literacy is lifelong holistic learning acquired and applied in movement and physical activity contexts; Composition—Physical literacy reflects ongoing changes integrating physical, psychological, cognitive, and social capabilities; Importance—Physical literacy is vital in helping us lead healthy and fulfilling lives through movement and physical activity; and Aspiration—A physically literate person is able to draw on his/her integrated physical, psychological, cognitive, and social capacities to support health promoting and fulfilling movement and physical activity, relative to the situation and context, throughout the lifespan. The standards framework addressed four learning domains (physical, psychological, cognitive, and social), spanning five learning configurations/levels. Conclusion: The development of a bespoke program for a new context has important implications for both existing and future programs.

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Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright, John R. Evans and Richard J. Keegan

Assessment of physical literacy poses a dilemma of what instrument to use. There is currently no guide regarding the suitability of common assessment approaches. The purpose of this brief communication is to provide a user’s guide for selecting physical literacy assessment instruments appropriate for use in school physical education and sport settings. Although recommendations regarding specific instruments are not provided, the guide offers information about key attributes and considerations for the use. A decision flow chart has been developed to assist teachers and affiliated school practitioners to select appropriate methods of assessing physical literacy. School physical education and sport scenarios are presented to illustrate this process. It is important that practitioners are empowered to select the most appropriate instrument/s to suit their needs.