This paper discusses the author’s fieldwork experiences while initiating and undertaking substantive participant observation research with two rival groups of Scottish football hooligans (“football casuals”). Key problems examined are those that emerge from attempted entrée into the hooligan subcultures and the everyday risks of comparative research with violent fans. The author provides regular illustrations to highlight how dangers such as the researcher’s personal characteristics, lack of guiding sociological literature, and interaction with police officers can threaten the urban ethnographic project. The resultant ambivalence of some research subjects toward the author is interpreted as one reason for minimizing the prospect of his “going native.”
Risk has been a prominent keyword in public and academic spheres since the early 1990s. Discourses of risk assessment and management now underpin a vast range of professional, social and political domains, from the planning of children’s leisure to global diplomacy on nuclear proliferation. Similar to “cultural” and “global” turns, we may speak of a “risk turn” that marks an epistemological and ontological step-change from the early 1990s onwards in social sciences.
Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson
This paper develops our prior work to examine how glocalization may be applied to examine Asian sport. We begin by discussing the different usages of glocalization in social science, and the role of Asian scholars in developing and applying the term. We set out our sociocultural understanding of glocalization, notably drawing on Robertson’s work and our subsequent conception of the “duality of glocality”. We examine critically the arguments of Ritzer and Connell on glocalization and globalization more generally. We consider in detail how the study of glocalization processes in Asia may be most fruitfully developed with reference to four fields of research inquiry. We conclude by discussing the connection of glocalization theory to debates on localism and localization, civilizations, and multiple modernities.
Simon C. Darnell, Richard Giulianotti, P. David Howe and Holly Collison
Some recent appraisals of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) research have found it to be deterministic and ideological, and lacking sophistication and specificity with regards to theory and method. Notably, such criticisms dovetail with the foundations of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on fieldwork in Kingston, Jamaica, we draw on ANT to ‘re-assemble’ the understanding of SDP programs by examining their constitutive elements. The results illustrate the connections necessary for SDP to cohere, and the range of actors in the field, including international funders, funds themselves, and concepts regarding sport’s development utility. Investigating these assemblages facilitates a non-deterministic understanding of the ways in which sport is mobilized in the service of development and peace, while allowing for a nuanced and empirically sound assessment of power and agency.