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Rick Smith

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

Background: To better understand the unique challenges of Appalachians, community-based studies are needed to establish benchmark rates. This study compares obesity rates and obesogenic behaviors among Appalachian adolescents to other adolescent populations or clinical recommendations. Methods: This study was conducted in 11 Appalachian schools. Body mass index, body mass index percentile, and body fat percentage were measured using a Tanita DC-430U analyzer. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was self-reported. Pearson’s correlations, independent t tests, and multivariate analyses with tests of between-subject effects were conducted. Results: Mean (n = 345) age was 15.23 (SD = 1.02) years. Appalachian adolescents were extremely obese (13.1%) by more than double that of national adolescent rates. Nearly 29% of males and over 55% of females were at increased cardiovascular risk. Only 15% were moderately active for at least 60 minutes a day, but only for 1 day per week. Mean afterschool sedentary time was 4.75 hours. Only 2.1% recorded vigorous activity for a minimum of 10 minutes at 1 day per week. Nearly all regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion: Obesogenic health disparities were evident in Appalachia. Rates of obesogenic factors among Appalachian adolescents exceed national rates. Appalachian adolescents were far less active, and extreme obesity is a major health concern.

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Jonathon R. Staples, Kevin A. Schafer, Matthew V. Smith, John Motley, Mark Halstead, Andrew Blackman, Amanda Haas, Karen Steger-May, Matthew J. Matava, Rick W. Wright and Robert H. Brophy

Context: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are likely to have deficient dynamic postural stability compared with healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that patients undergoing ACL reconstruction have decreased dynamic postural stability compared with matched healthy controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Orthopedic sports medicine and physical therapy clinics. Patients or Other Participants: Patients aged 20 years and younger with an ACL tear scheduled for reconstruction were enrolled prospectively. Controls were recruited from local high schools and colleges via flyers. Interventions: Patients underwent double-stance dynamic postural stability testing prior to surgery, recording time to failure and dynamic motion analysis (DMA) scores. Patients were then matched with healthy controls. Main Outcome Measures: Demographics, time to failure, and DMA scores were compared between groups. Results: A total of 19 females and 12 males with ACL tears were matched with controls. Individuals with ACL tears were more active (Marx activity score: 15.7 [1.0] vs 10.8 [4.9], P < .001); had shorter times until test failure (84.4 [15.8] vs 99.5 [14.5] s, P < .001); and had higher (worse) DMA scores (627 [147] vs 481 [132], P < .001), indicating less dynamic postural stability. Six patients with ACL deficiency (1 male and 5 females) demonstrated lower (better) DMA scores than their controls, and another 7 (4 males and 3 females) were within 20% of controls. Conclusions: Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction had worse global dynamic postural stability compared with well-matched controls. This may represent the effect of the ACL injury or preexisting deficits that contributed to the injury itself. These differences should be studied further to evaluate their relevance to ACL injury risk, rehabilitation, and return to play.