The motor proficiency of 56 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was compared with that of 56 boys with learning disabilities (LD); both groups were divided into two age groups, 7 to 8 years and 9 to 12 years. Boys with ADHD were taking Ritalin and attending public schools. Boys with LD were medication-free and attending private schools for LD. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP–LF) was used to measure balance, bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination, response speed, visual-motor coordination, and upper limb speed and dexterity. MANOVA revealed significant main effects for condition and age. Subsequent univariate ANOVAs revealed (a) expected age differences on all but one item and (b) significantly poorer performance for boys with ADHD than boys with LD on all variables except balance, upper limb coordination, and response speed.
Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Margaret Flores and Robbi Beyer
The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is between 2%-10% of children (Center for Disease Control, 2003). Participation in organized sports is beneficial to children with ADHD by increasing self-esteem, self-efficacy, peer acceptance, and social skills (Armstrong & Drabman, 2004; Bagwell, Brooke, Pelham, and Hoza, 2001). Little research exists as to preparation for youth sport coaches with regard to coaching athletes with ADHD. The study’s purpose was to investigate coaches’ efficacy beliefs for coaching athletes with ADHD. Two hundred nineteen volunteer coaches completed a questionnaire designed to measure their beliefs. The results showed that overall coaches reported fairly high feelings of efficacy for working with athletes with ADHD. However, results also indicated that coaches reporting experience with athletes with ADHD reported higher efficacy for coaching athletes with ADHD than their less experienced peers. Implications for coaching education include the incorporation of behavior management techniques into course content and the creation of ADHD resources such as weblinks and pamphlets.
Tiffanye M. Vargas, Robbi Beyer and Margaret M. Flores
The coach serves an integral role in shaping the youth sport experience. For athletes with hidden disabilities (HD), participation in sports may be a negative experience because their coach may misperceive or misunderstand their behaviors. This can lead to attrition, and the resultant loss of opportunity to gain the many benefits sports can offer. However, there are research validated strategies that can help coaches more effectively teach and work with athletes within the educational realm that has yet to be implemented within coaching education. These strategies fall under a framework called Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL is a proactive approach in which coaches anticipate diversity and plan accessible activities. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review the recent research on coaching athletes with HD, and to provide practical tips for coaching not only athletes with HD, but rather ALL athletes, in the most effective way using Universal Design for Learning.
Tiffanye M. Vargas, Margaret M. Flores and Robbi Beyer
Athletes with high incidence disabilities (specific learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional behavioral disorders, mild intellectual disabilities and speech/language disabilities) make up 10% of the population of children in kindergarten through twelfth grade. Since these disabilities are not physically apparent, there difficulties may be overlooked or athletes may be mistakenly labeled as unmotivated, lazy, oppositional or defiant. These deficits can be remediated and compensated through the use of research-validated strategies and instructional methods. However, while these methods and strategies are often included in teacher preparation, they rarely, if ever, are included in coaching-preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this hour long interactive lecture is twofold and 1) seeks to review the coaching education research on hidden disabilities, including coaches’ attitudes and efficacy towards working with athletes with hidden disabilities, coaching educators attitudes towards the inclusion of such content within coaching education, and coaches’ preferences for how to receive this information, and 2) to illustrate teaching strategies and techniques that can successfully be incorporated into coaching education. Presenters will use discussion, activities, and research to introduce this new area to coaching education to coach educators and sport scientists/high performance directors.
Tiffanye M. Vargas, Robbi Beyer and Margaret M. Flores
Within youth sport, there is a clear need for improved coaching education and coaching resources. Most youth sport coaches recreational leaders are generally recruited from the community based on their availability and volunteerism (McCallister, Blinde, & Kolenbrander, 2000). While these individuals often have the best interests of participants in mind, it is difficult to ask/require a volunteer to pursue specific sport training, when they are often already pressed for time. However, with the continued growth of online resources, and the convenience the internet affords, it may be a viable option to offer online coaching resources to assist volunteer coaches and recreational leaders. Therefore, the purpose of this poster presentation is to discuss and explore volunteer youth sport coaches’ and recreational leaders’ opinions of website resources. One hundred and sixteen volunteer coaches and recreational leaders completed an 11 item survey assessing their opinions on website resources. Coaches were from a large Southwestern city and represented multiple sports including football, soccer, volleyball, cheerleading, and basketball. Results indicated that overall, participants held positive opinions regarding websites as a resource and a means for providing needed and novel information to coaches. However, they only marginally agreed that a website was the most effective method of teaching coaches and recreation leaders. Participants suggested a preference for learning material through seminars and workshops. Future research should continue to address the feasibility and limitations of online resources for coaches. As well, as technology continues to evolve, researchers should begin to address the helpfulness of social media and smartphone apps as instructional aids and resources for coaches.