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Cathy M. Arnold and Robert A. Faulkner


To evaluate the effect of aquatic exercise and education on fall risk factors in older adults with hip osteoarthritis (OA).


Seventy-nine adults, 65 years of age or older with hip OA and at least 1 fall risk factor, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: aquatics and education (AE; aquatic exercise twice a wk with once-a-wk group education), aquatics only (A; 2 wk aquatic exercise) and control (C; usual activity). Balance, falls efficacy, dual-task function, functional performance (chair stands), and walking performance were measured pre- and postintervention or control period.


There was a significant improvement in fall risk factors (full-factorial MANCOVA, baseline values as covariates; p = .038); AE improved in falls efficacy compared with C and in functional performance compared with A and C.


The combination of aquatic exercise and education was effective in improving fall risk factors in older adults with arthritis.

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Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. Crocker, and Robert A. Faulkner

Two studies assessed the validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), a 7-day recall that assesses general moderate to vigorous physical activity levels during the school year. The first study, involving 89 elementary school students in Grades 4–8, investigated convergent, divergent, and construct validity. The PAQ-C was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .63), week summation of 24-hr moderate to vigorous activity recalls (r = .53), a teacher’s rating of physical activity (r = .45), and perceptions of athletic competence (r = .48). As expected, the PAQ-C was not related to perceptions of behavioral conduct. The second study, involving 97 elementary school students, investigated convergent and construct validity. The PAQ-C was moderately related to an activity rating (r = .57), the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (r = .41), a Caltrac motion sensor (r = .39), a 7-day physical activity recall interview (r = .46) and a step test of fitness (r = .28). The PAQ-C validity coefficients were as high as or greater than the 7-day recall interview. These two studies support the validity of the PAQ-C as a method of assessing older children’s general physical activity levels.

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Robert G. McCulloch, Donald A. Bailey, Robert L. Whalen, C. Stuart Houston, Robert A. Faulkner, and Bruce R. Craven

This cross-sectional study compared differences in os calcis bone density and distal radius bone mineral content (BMC) among adolescent soccer players, competitive swimmers, and control subjects. Sixty-eight males and females (23 soccer players, 20 swimmers, 25 controls) ages 13 to 17 served as subjects. The results for os calcis trabecular density indicate a trend that may be of clinical significance and that may warrant further study. The swimmers had the lowest os calcis density in both sexes whereas the soccer players had the highest bone density at this weight-bearing site (F=2.54, p<.08). No differences with respect to distal radius BMC were observed among activity groups or between sexes.

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner, and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

Purpose: Premenarcheal female gymnasts have been consistently found to have greater bone mass and structural advantages. However, little is known about whether these structural advantages are maintained after the loading stimulus is removed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the structural properties at the hip after long-term retirement from gymnastics. Methods: Structural properties were derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans using the hip structural analysis program for the same 24 gymnasts and 21 nongymnasts both in adolescence (8–15 y) and adulthood (22–30 y). Structural measures were obtained at the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft and included cross-sectional area, section modulus, and buckling ratio. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences between groups in bone measures while controlling for size, age, maturity, and physical activity. Results: Gymnasts were found to have structural advantages at the narrow neck in adolescence (16% greater cross-sectional area, 17% greater section modulus, and 25% lower buckling ratio) and 14 years later (13% greater cross-sectional area and 26% lower buckling ratio). Benefits were also found at the intertrochanter and femoral shaft sites in adolescence and adulthood. Conclusion: Ten years after retirement from gymnastics, former gymnasts’ maintained significantly better hip bone structure than females who did not participate in gymnastics during growth.