The purpose of this investigation was to compare static and dynamic balance in sighted, sighted blindfolded, and congenitally blind students. The subjects (N = 51) ranged in age from 14.1 to 17.4 years of age. The sighted subjects (N = 34) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, 17 in the sighted and 17 in the sighted blindfolded group. The 17 congenitally blind subjects were selected from the total population of blind students attending a special school for the blind. All subjects were tested for static balance using the Stork Stand. Dynamic balance was measured using the stabilometer. The data analysis revealed significant differences between all three groups, with the sighted group demonstrating superior balance for both measures. The blind subjects performed significantly better than the sighted blindfolded group for dynamic balance only. The results of the study support previous investigations which have demonstrated that sighted individuals have better balance when compared with blind individuals. However, the fact that the blind subjects performed better on dynamic balance when compared to the sighted blindfolded group points to the need for immediate intervention in this area for adventitiously blind persons, or those acquiring blindness later in life.
Hani Ribadi, Robert A. Rider and Tonya Toole
Francis M. Kozub, Hyun-Kyoung Oh and Robert A. Rider
The purpose of this study was to estimate validity and reliability for RT31 monitors when worn by 19 school age participants with visual impairments during physical education. Values from RT3 monitors were compared to observational data using the Children’s Physical Activity Form (CPAF). Estimates of reliability for the RT3 monitors were calculated by placing two monitors on participants during data collection and then calculating intraclass correlations using repeated measures. Validity estimates between RT3 monitors and CPAF scores resulted in a strong relationship (R = .89, p < .001, n = 19). Validity and reliability estimates indicate that the RT3 is a useful tool for measuring short term physical activity levels in adolescents with visual impairments.
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider and Dewayne J. Johnson
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider, Bernadette M. Twardy, Pamela S. Oliver, Michael Griffin and Donald N. Arsenault
The purpose of this study was to compare the teaching process interaction behavior of teachers who planned for classes with those who did not plan. Senior physical education majors served as the teaching subjects for this study—six in the planning (experimental) group and six in the no-plan (control) group. Each teacher taught the same lesson content for a 15-minute episode. The planning group spent 1 hour before the lesson writing explicit plans, while the control group was given 2 minutes just before the lesson to gather their thoughts and be informed of the content to be covered. The behaviors of all teachers were observed by the Cheffers Adaptation of the Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). The results indicated significant differences in only two interaction categories: amount of directions given and the amount of silence. Both variables were better for the planning group.