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Mika Rathwell, Robert Henry, and Sam McKegney

For 25 years, the Beardy’s Blackhawks were Canada’s only U18 AAA hockey team located on and operated by a First Nation. The team encouraged young, Indigenous athletes to take pride in their cultural heritage and offered a sense of belonging and acceptance while also providing an opportunity for non-Indigenous players to play in such an environment. In 2019, the Saskatchewan Hockey Association made the decision to eliminate the Blackhawks from the league, describing their removal as a need to address “league concerns” related to billeting and younger player development. The purpose of this article is to analyze differences in how opportunity is understood and experienced by final-roster players (2019/2020 hockey season) and past alumni and, particularly, how it diverged across racial and cultural axes. What is found through semistructured interviews is that the concept of opportunity shifts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous players: Whereas Indigenous players tend to view opportunity in relation to cultural pride, non-Indigenous players view opportunity primarily in relation to future hockey opportunities. We argue that specific elite sporting opportunities that are characterized by Indigenous values are needed for a greater and more diverse range of Indigenous athletes to succeed in elite sport.

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Daniel L. Blessing, Robert E. Keith, Henry N. Williford, Marjean E. Blessing, and Jeff A. Barksdale

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an endurance training program on blood lipids and lipoproteins in adolescents. Fifteen males and 10 females, ages 13 to 18 years, underwent pretest evaluations, including physical measurements, nutritional intake, physical working capacity (PWC), and fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein levels. Physical conditioning consisted of a 16-week progressive endurance training (ET) program 40 min·day1 three times per week. Twenty-five males and females matched for age, sex, and race served as controls. Following the conditioning program, the ET group had a significant increase (p < .05) in PWC and a significant decrease (p < .05) in sum of skinfolds and resting heart rate. A significant decrease (p < .05) was also noted for total cholesterol (TC) and the ratio of TC to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with a significant increase (p < .05) in HDL-C. No differences were found for the control group. The results suggest that 16 weeks of endurance training favorably improves blood lipid profiles in adolescents.

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Henry N. Williford, Michele Scharff Olson, Robert E. Keith, Jeffrey M. Barksdale, Daniel L. Blessing, Nai-Zhen Wang, and Pete Preston

This investigation evaluated the iron and nutritional status of 12 highly trained aerobic dance instructors who did not take iron supplements (ANS) and 8 who did (AS). A control group (C) consisted of 10 age matched controls. The aerobic instructors had exercised for approximately 3.8 days/wk, 56 min/session for the past 7 yrs. There were no significant differences among groups for energy intake, carbohydrate, protein, fat, nonheme iron, heme iron, or total iron intake (excluding supplemental iron). But both exercise groups had lower ferritin values than the control group. There was also a significant difference in mean cell volume (MCV), with both exercise groups having greater values than the control group. There were no differences among groups for serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, hematocrit, or hemoglobin. One in three aerobic dance instructors had serum ferritin values below 12 μg · L−1. Results indicate that women exercise leaders have iron profiles that are similar to other groups of female athletes. The increased MCV values suggest runners' macrocytosis or an exercise induced macrocytosis.

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Matthew R. Ely, Robert W. Kenefick, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Troy Chinevere, Craig P. Lacher, Henry C. Lukaski, and Scott J. Montain

Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of whether the reported HA effect is real or artifact of surface contamination.

Purpose:

To measure sweat mineral concentrations serially during HA and determine if surface contamination plays a role in the reported mineral reductions.

Methods:

Calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in sweat obtained from 17 male volunteers using an arm bag on Day 1, 5, and 10 of a HA protocol. To study the role of contamination, sweat was simultaneously (n = 10 subjects) sampled twice daily from a cleaned site (WASH) and unclean site (NO WASH) on the scapular surface.

Results:

Sweat Ca, Cu, and Mg from Arm Bag trended progressively downward from Day 1 to Day 10 of HA (p = .10–0.25). Micromineral concentrations from the WASH site did not change between Day 1, 5, or 10 (Ca = 0.30 ± 0.12 mmol/L, Cu 0.41 ± 0.53 μmol/L; Zn 1.11 ± 0.80 μmol/L). Surface contamination can confound sweat mineral estimates, as sweat Ca and Cu from NO WASH site were initially higher than WASH (p < .05) but became similar to WASH when sampled serially.

Conclusion:

Heat acclimation does not confer reductions in sweat Ca, Cu, Mg, or Zn. When the skin surface is not cleaned, mineral residue inflates initial sweat mineral concentrations. Earlier reports of micromineral reductions during HA may have been confounded by interday cleaning variability.